Topic 6 - Animal Housing and Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 6 - Animal Housing and Nutrition Deck (24)
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1

Within housing, animals must have room to:

lie down
turn around
stand

2

The average enviro conditions for species

12 hours light/12 hours dark
20-22˚C
15 air changes per hour
55% relative humidity
low level noise

3

When housing animals, considerations include

safe, non toxic materials
escape & weather proof
appropriate stocking rate
compatible grouping

4

Animals require a diet that is...

complete and balanced
palatible, desirable
easy to ingest, digest & absorb

5

What are the considerations when constructing a feeding plan?

Individual animal
life stage
age
gender
species
breed
health status
weight/body condition
food availability & cost
weather conditions
natural feeding times

6

Describe carnivores

monogastric (simple digestive tract)
eat meat/invertebrates
eat infrequently, w/ large quantity eaten at one time

7

Describe herbivores

hind gut fermenters or ruminants
complex digestive tracts to allow plant fibre to ferment & breakdown into usable nutrients
eat only plant material
need to eat several times throughout the day

8

Process of eating involves...?

prehension=>ingestion=>digestion & fermentation=>absorption=>excretion

9

Name the four kinds of teeth

Incisors: for cutting food
Canines: for catching and holding prey
Premolars & molars: for grinding & crushing food

10

Know basic anatomy (look at dog diagram in notes)

Mouth
Pharynx
Oesophagus
stomach
liver
bile duct
duodenum
pancreas
caecum
ascending/descending colon
rectum
anal canal

11

Function of the small intestine?

major site for digestion & reabsorption; comprised of duodenum, jejunum & ilium

12

Function of the pancreas?

supplies digestive enzymes to duodenum (amylase, lipase, trypsin); manufactures insulin

13

Function of the liver?

produces biles; converts absorbed nutrients into molecules able to be used by body; detoxifies; blood clotting & immune sys proteins

14

Function of the large intestine?

Major site of water absorption; comprises of caecum, colon, rectum & anus

15

Avian digestion. Birds have two stomachs -explain?

Proventriculus (normal), gizzard (grinding). Have crop for storing food, twin caecae & single opening (cloaca) for digestive, repro & urinary tracts

16

Name the 6 essential nutrients to animals and why the are needed

Proteins -source of energy, tissue repair & rebuilding
CHD -energy
Lipids -concentrated energy
Vitamins -growth, tissue repair, digestion
Minerals -bones, muscle function, blood
Water -metabolism, temp, body fluid, electrolyte balance

17

Amount of energy required by an animal depends on....?
Energy requirement is measured as a factor of the....? Which is...? and is measured in....?

depends on....? metabolic rate, amount of exercise, pregnancy, disease etc
measured as a factor of the....? maintenance energy requirement (MER)
Which is...? amount of energy required to maintain health & BW of average adult animal
and is measured in....? kilocalories per day

18

Dietary requirements of dogs?

Can be fed meat, veggies, rice, CHD though must be supplemented w/ vitamins & minerals

19

Dietary requirements of cats?

Obligate carnivores; high protein high fat diet. Cannot be fed veggies

20

What is a behaviour problem?

one that stems from a mental issue, which needs to be treated by a veterinary behaviouralist

21

What are the four aims of behavioural enrichment?

1. to preserve and conserve natural behaviour
2. to eliminate or reduce levels of stress, abnormal or stereotypic behaviour
3. to increase behavioural diversity
4. to increase animals activity levels

22

Enrichment records should include:

description of enrichment strategy or item
date of implementation
if undesirable behaviour is decreasing
if strategy should be changed and why
animals interest
how much time spent w/ enrichment
condition of item
how long item is to be left w/ animal

23

Any novel stimulus which evokes an animal's interest is called?

enrichment

24

Define animal welfare

the avoidance of exploitation of animals by man by maintaining appropriate standards of accom, feeding & general care, the prevention and treatment of disease & the assurance of freedom from harassment & unnecessary discomfort & pain