Flashcards in Topic 6 - Animal Housing and Nutrition Deck (24)
Within housing, animals must have room to:
The average enviro conditions for species
12 hours light/12 hours dark
15 air changes per hour
55% relative humidity
low level noise
When housing animals, considerations include
safe, non toxic materials
escape & weather proof
appropriate stocking rate
Animals require a diet that is...
complete and balanced
easy to ingest, digest & absorb
What are the considerations when constructing a feeding plan?
food availability & cost
natural feeding times
monogastric (simple digestive tract)
eat infrequently, w/ large quantity eaten at one time
hind gut fermenters or ruminants
complex digestive tracts to allow plant fibre to ferment & breakdown into usable nutrients
eat only plant material
need to eat several times throughout the day
Process of eating involves...?
prehension=>ingestion=>digestion & fermentation=>absorption=>excretion
Name the four kinds of teeth
Incisors: for cutting food
Canines: for catching and holding prey
Premolars & molars: for grinding & crushing food
Know basic anatomy (look at dog diagram in notes)
Function of the small intestine?
major site for digestion & reabsorption; comprised of duodenum, jejunum & ilium
Function of the pancreas?
supplies digestive enzymes to duodenum (amylase, lipase, trypsin); manufactures insulin
Function of the liver?
produces biles; converts absorbed nutrients into molecules able to be used by body; detoxifies; blood clotting & immune sys proteins
Function of the large intestine?
Major site of water absorption; comprises of caecum, colon, rectum & anus
Avian digestion. Birds have two stomachs -explain?
Proventriculus (normal), gizzard (grinding). Have crop for storing food, twin caecae & single opening (cloaca) for digestive, repro & urinary tracts
Name the 6 essential nutrients to animals and why the are needed
Proteins -source of energy, tissue repair & rebuilding
Lipids -concentrated energy
Vitamins -growth, tissue repair, digestion
Minerals -bones, muscle function, blood
Water -metabolism, temp, body fluid, electrolyte balance
Amount of energy required by an animal depends on....?
Energy requirement is measured as a factor of the....? Which is...? and is measured in....?
depends on....? metabolic rate, amount of exercise, pregnancy, disease etc
measured as a factor of the....? maintenance energy requirement (MER)
Which is...? amount of energy required to maintain health & BW of average adult animal
and is measured in....? kilocalories per day
Dietary requirements of dogs?
Can be fed meat, veggies, rice, CHD though must be supplemented w/ vitamins & minerals
Dietary requirements of cats?
Obligate carnivores; high protein high fat diet. Cannot be fed veggies
What is a behaviour problem?
one that stems from a mental issue, which needs to be treated by a veterinary behaviouralist
What are the four aims of behavioural enrichment?
1. to preserve and conserve natural behaviour
2. to eliminate or reduce levels of stress, abnormal or stereotypic behaviour
3. to increase behavioural diversity
4. to increase animals activity levels
Enrichment records should include:
description of enrichment strategy or item
date of implementation
if undesirable behaviour is decreasing
if strategy should be changed and why
how much time spent w/ enrichment
condition of item
how long item is to be left w/ animal
Any novel stimulus which evokes an animal's interest is called?