TOPIC 5 : PERCEPTION Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TOPIC 5 : PERCEPTION Deck (67)
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1

WHAT IS ATTENTION

attention is the ability to focus on a stimuli in the environment or conscious processes, while not processing other info.

2

Selective attention

conscious awareness focus on a particular stimulus

3

Divided attention

conscious awareness is spread over two or more stimuli

4

The myth of multitasking

"multitaskers" actually just switch rapidly between tasks.

5

problems with multitasking

- Decreases productivity and speed

- Decrease creative thinking

- Increases release of stress hormones and stress

6

Early-selection theory

unimportant information is "filtered out" early on before processing

7

cocktail party phenomenon

- part of early-selection theory

- when you ignore all other convos around you and pay attention to one person

8

the problem with cocktail part phenomenon

when someone across the room mentions your name and you notice.

9

inattention blindness

when visual attention is engaged, other events fail to be perceived

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change blindness

when a visual stimulus is interrupted and charged, we cannot detect the charge

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What does change blindness suggest?

suggests that the entire visual scene is not fully attended to, encoded, or retained.

12

Gastalt psychology

- in form perception

- Asked how are sensation organized into perceptions ?

- Motto: the whole is different then the sum of parts

- Figure V.S Ground: what is the object and what is the background?

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Laws of perpetual

governed how related stimuli are associated

14

Pros and Cons of laws of perpetual

PROS:
- Holistic approach: perpetual experience cannot be broken down into concepts

CONS:
- not good for making predictions.

- not good at explanations

15

Pattern perception

- Template models
- Prototype models
- Feature model
- Structural models

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Template models

- input compared to fixed template stored in memory

- stimulus categorized into exact match.

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pros and cons for template model

PROS:
- successfully used in machines

CONS:
- cannot handle novel stimuli, or variations in a stimulus.

18

Prototype models

- input compared to abstract, idealized patterns until best match


- prototype is like an “average” formed by repeated experience

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pros and cons to prototype models

PRO:
- more flexible; allows for differences in “goodness” (some category members are more representative than others) 

CON:  
- how do we perceive specific things?; cannot handle context

20

feature models

- Input broken down into simple component

- features, like line segments
feature list compared to stored catalog

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Pros and cons to feature models

 PRO:
- can account for variations, and “goodness”
CON:
- features are poorly defined; cannot handle context

22

structural models

Recognition By components (Biederman, 1987)

- object identified by matching configuration of geons with stored catalog of objects

- evidence: if an object’s geons can be determined, the object can be recognized--even if partially obscured

23

goons

(geometric icons):
volumetric shapes that can be modified (length, width, etc.), but remain identifiable (cylinder, brick, cone)

24

pros and cons to structural models

PROS:
- can account for variations

CONS:
- cannot differentiate between two things that have the same geons ; cannot handle context

25

types of processing

- Bottom-up
- Top-down

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Bottom-up

sensory data is gathered, put together, and evaluated on the basis of what emerges from the pattern

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Top-down

higher-level processes (e.g., based on context, experience, knowledge) aid in interpreting data gathered by the senses

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perceptual set

predisposition to interpret a stimulus in a particular way

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perceptual schemas

Mental structures that help us organize the world into a coherent whole.

- Are learned, thus affected by context, culture, & experience

30

Binocular cues

depth cues requiring two eyes