Flashcards in TOPIC 5 : PERCEPTION Deck (67)
WHAT IS ATTENTION
attention is the ability to focus on a stimuli in the environment or conscious processes, while not processing other info.
conscious awareness focus on a particular stimulus
conscious awareness is spread over two or more stimuli
The myth of multitasking
"multitaskers" actually just switch rapidly between tasks.
problems with multitasking
- Decreases productivity and speed
- Decrease creative thinking
- Increases release of stress hormones and stress
unimportant information is "filtered out" early on before processing
cocktail party phenomenon
- part of early-selection theory
- when you ignore all other convos around you and pay attention to one person
the problem with cocktail part phenomenon
when someone across the room mentions your name and you notice.
when visual attention is engaged, other events fail to be perceived
when a visual stimulus is interrupted and charged, we cannot detect the charge
What does change blindness suggest?
suggests that the entire visual scene is not fully attended to, encoded, or retained.
- in form perception
- Asked how are sensation organized into perceptions ?
- Motto: the whole is different then the sum of parts
- Figure V.S Ground: what is the object and what is the background?
Laws of perpetual
governed how related stimuli are associated
Pros and Cons of laws of perpetual
- Holistic approach: perpetual experience cannot be broken down into concepts
- not good for making predictions.
- not good at explanations
- Template models
- Prototype models
- Feature model
- Structural models
- input compared to fixed template stored in memory
- stimulus categorized into exact match.
pros and cons for template model
- successfully used in machines
- cannot handle novel stimuli, or variations in a stimulus.
- input compared to abstract, idealized patterns until best match
- prototype is like an “average” formed by repeated experience
pros and cons to prototype models
- more flexible; allows for differences in “goodness” (some category members are more representative than others)
- how do we perceive specific things?; cannot handle context
- Input broken down into simple component
- features, like line segments
feature list compared to stored catalog
Pros and cons to feature models
- can account for variations, and “goodness”
- features are poorly defined; cannot handle context
Recognition By components (Biederman, 1987)
- object identified by matching configuration of geons with stored catalog of objects
- evidence: if an object’s geons can be determined, the object can be recognized--even if partially obscured
volumetric shapes that can be modified (length, width, etc.), but remain identifiable (cylinder, brick, cone)
pros and cons to structural models
- can account for variations
- cannot differentiate between two things that have the same geons ; cannot handle context
types of processing
sensory data is gathered, put together, and evaluated on the basis of what emerges from the pattern
higher-level processes (e.g., based on context, experience, knowledge) aid in interpreting data gathered by the senses
predisposition to interpret a stimulus in a particular way
Mental structures that help us organize the world into a coherent whole.
- Are learned, thus affected by context, culture, & experience