Topic 3.1: Thermal Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 3.1: Thermal Concepts Deck (11)
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Define temperature

o TEMPERATURE: A measurement of how hot an object is. A scalar quantity. If two objects have the same temperature, there will be no net heat flow between them.


What does temperature determine in terms of thermal energy transfer?

• 3.1.1: State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two objects


• 3.1.2: State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature

o Temperature in Kelvin = Temperature in Celsius + 273


Define absolute zero

o ABSOLUTE ZERO: The lowest temperature possible. -273.16°C or zero kelvin (0K). Kelvin is the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale.


Define internal energy

• 3.1.3: State that the internal energy of a substance is the total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance


Where does the kinetic energy arise from?

o The kinetic energy of the molecules arises from their random/translational/rotational motion


Where does the potential energy arise from?

o The potential energy of the molecules arises from the forces between the molecules


• 3.1.4: Explain and distinguish between the macroscopic concepts of temperature, internal energy and thermal energy (heat)

o Thermal energy refers to the non-mechanical transfer of energy between a system and its surroundings


Define mole

o MOLE: The amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12.


Define molar mass

o MOLAR MASS: The mass of 1 mole of a substance. eg molar mass of water is 18g


Define Avogadro's constant

o AVOGADRO CONSTANT: The number of particles in a mole. A= 6.02 x 10^23