TOPIC 3: NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOUR Flashcards Preview

PSYCHOLOGY 104 > TOPIC 3: NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOUR > Flashcards

Flashcards in TOPIC 3: NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOUR Deck (97)
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1

phrenology

linked physical state and mind, study of bumps on your skull.

2

reductionism

philosophy that a complex system can be explained by reducing it to its component parts.

3

myelin sheath

- fatty cells surrounding axon

- increases processing speed of electric current.

- degeneration of myelin sheath can lead to multiple sclerosis

4

where is the neurone + or - when polarized

positive outside and negative inside

5

what's the state when the neuron is polarized

resting potential

6

action potential

electrochemical process that produces a traveling electrical charge along the axon

7

depolarization

Na+ channels open briefly, Na+ enters

8

depolarization

K+ channels open, K+ exits

9

where does depolarization and repolarization occur

occurs as a wave down the length of the axon terminal button

10

ion pumps function

restores balance of Na+ and K+ ions

11

absolute refractory period

time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin

12

synapse

functional connection between neutrons

13

synaptic cleft

gap between terminal buttons of one neutron and dendrites of another neuron

14

how are messages given

carried across by neurotransmitters

15

neurotransmitters

chemical messenger released by traveling charge

16

excitatory

opens channels allowing inflow of positively charged ions

17

inhibitory

opens channels allowing outflow of positively charged ions or inflow of negatively charges ions.

18

when is it increased likelihood of neurone firing?

during excitatory state, decreased likelihood during inhibitory state

19

threshold

minimum activity needed for action potential to occur

20

all monoamines

-dopamine
-norepinephrine
- serotonin

21

all amino acids

-glutamate
- gamma-aminobutyric acid
-endorphins

22

acetylcholine

(ACh)
-excititory transmitter between motor neurone and muscles; learning and memory

- low levels of ACh associated with Alzheimers disease

- curare is antagonistic towards ACh, and blocks it.

- nicotine ACh receptors activate by nicotine (agonist)

23

curare

antagonistic : blocks ACh actions on muscles

24

dopamine

(DA)
- voluntary movements, emotional arousal, learning, memory, pleasure system.

- degeneration is linked to Parkinson's disease

- high levels implicated in schizophrenia

25

norepinephrine

(NE)
- alertness and arousal, intense fear and pain, enhances attentions and memory.

26

serotonin

(5-HT)
- generally inhibitory; controls sleep/wakefulness/arousal; implicated in aggression, mood and pain.

27

glutamate

(Glu)
- always excitatory; NMD receptor implicated in learning/memory and neural plasticity

28

gamma-animobutyric acid

always inhibitory; found throughout the brain

29

endorphins

endogenous (internal) opioids; have analgesic effects, elevate mood.

- hero is exogenous (external) opioid

30

components of the CNS

brain and spinal cord