Flashcards in TOPIC 3: NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOUR Deck (97)
linked physical state and mind, study of bumps on your skull.
philosophy that a complex system can be explained by reducing it to its component parts.
- fatty cells surrounding axon
- increases processing speed of electric current.
- degeneration of myelin sheath can lead to multiple sclerosis
where is the neurone + or - when polarized
positive outside and negative inside
what's the state when the neuron is polarized
electrochemical process that produces a traveling electrical charge along the axon
Na+ channels open briefly, Na+ enters
K+ channels open, K+ exits
where does depolarization and repolarization occur
occurs as a wave down the length of the axon terminal button
ion pumps function
restores balance of Na+ and K+ ions
absolute refractory period
time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin
functional connection between neutrons
gap between terminal buttons of one neutron and dendrites of another neuron
how are messages given
carried across by neurotransmitters
chemical messenger released by traveling charge
opens channels allowing inflow of positively charged ions
opens channels allowing outflow of positively charged ions or inflow of negatively charges ions.
when is it increased likelihood of neurone firing?
during excitatory state, decreased likelihood during inhibitory state
minimum activity needed for action potential to occur
all amino acids
- gamma-aminobutyric acid
-excititory transmitter between motor neurone and muscles; learning and memory
- low levels of ACh associated with Alzheimers disease
- curare is antagonistic towards ACh, and blocks it.
- nicotine ACh receptors activate by nicotine (agonist)
antagonistic : blocks ACh actions on muscles
- voluntary movements, emotional arousal, learning, memory, pleasure system.
- degeneration is linked to Parkinson's disease
- high levels implicated in schizophrenia
- alertness and arousal, intense fear and pain, enhances attentions and memory.
- generally inhibitory; controls sleep/wakefulness/arousal; implicated in aggression, mood and pain.
- always excitatory; NMD receptor implicated in learning/memory and neural plasticity
always inhibitory; found throughout the brain
endogenous (internal) opioids; have analgesic effects, elevate mood.
- hero is exogenous (external) opioid