Flashcards in TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGY AND RESEARCH Deck (40)
THEORY, HYPOTHESIS, AND RESEARCH
goal is to create a useful theory: an organized set of principles.
-helps simplify facts about an aspect of the world.
-serves as coherent explanation.
-should allow testable predictions
are well substantiated, well-supported, well documented explanations for our observations.
theories are not absolute, they are open to change if better evidence is found.
can describe, but only theories can explain.
the scientific method
1. ask questions, make observations, describe the phenomenon
2. develop an explanation (theory)
3. generate a hypothesis: testable prediction derived from a theory
4. design research study
5. collect relevant information
6 analyze and interpret the info; compare results with hypothesis
7. solicit peer reviews and report findings.
what is a hypothesis
a prediction which is testable and is originally derived from a theory .
an in-depth study of an individual, group, m or event by observation. in person meeting, structured psychological tests, recording of physiological activity, on performance on certain tasks, or from archival records.
pros and cons of case study
-can be revealing and detailed
-cannot determine cause of behaviour.
-atypical subject precludes generalization.
peoples self-reports to a questionnaire or interview
pros and cons to surveys
- reveals patterns in large numbers of people.
- easy to administer and score
- effects of extremes are mediated
- demand characteristic : response can be influence by the questions itself
(how wording effects)
recording behaviour in organisms natural environment
pros and cons to naturalistic observations
- subjects unaffected by presence of researches
- describes behaviour in natural contexts; wide applicability
- cannot determine cause of behaviour
- loss of experimental control
two different variables are measured form individuals, and statistically analyzed for a relationship
direct relationship between two variables, when one is effected so does the other.
inverse relationship between two variables, when one is effected a certain way, the other variables is affected I the opposite direction.
no relationship, the variables have no effect on on one another,
pros and cons for correlation
- may reveal relationship between variables
- can guide future by generating hypotheses
- correlation does not mean that one variable causes the other (correlation does not imply causation)
components of an experimentation
- indépendant variable
- dependant variable
- experimental group
- control group
factor of interest manipulated by experimentor
factor measured by experimenter ("effect")
- all extraneous factors are controlled or held constant
receive manipulated level of independent variable
receive normal level independent variable
pros and cons to experimentation
- allows cause and effect conclusions
- unexpected variables
- some variables cannot be manipulated
why are experiments conducted ??
- we learn cause and effect explanations
- thus, we control factors in an experiment
why are experiments valid ??
- experiments provide support for a theory
- theory explains universe principles of behaviour
- these occur in a lab, as well as in real life.
- events aren't obvious beforehand, but they seem very predictable after they occur.
false image of how confidence means correctness when it doesn't.
seeking evidence confirming your beliefs--even to the exclusion of contradictory information
SOLUTION: replication of observation by others
sample is not representative of the population.
SOLUTION: random selection.
researcher expectations influence change in dependant variable
SOLUTION: double-blind procedure, neither participant nor experimenter knows which treatment the participant is receiving.