TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGY AND RESEARCH Flashcards Preview

PSYCHOLOGY 104 > TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGY AND RESEARCH > Flashcards

Flashcards in TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGY AND RESEARCH Deck (40)
Loading flashcards...
1

THEORY, HYPOTHESIS, AND RESEARCH

goal is to create a useful theory: an organized set of principles.

-helps simplify facts about an aspect of the world.

-serves as coherent explanation.

-should allow testable predictions

2

scientific theories

are well substantiated, well-supported, well documented explanations for our observations.

theories are not absolute, they are open to change if better evidence is found.

3

scientific laws

can describe, but only theories can explain.

4

the scientific method

1. ask questions, make observations, describe the phenomenon

2. develop an explanation (theory)

3. generate a hypothesis: testable prediction derived from a theory

4. design research study

5. collect relevant information

6 analyze and interpret the info; compare results with hypothesis

7. solicit peer reviews and report findings.

5

what is a hypothesis

a prediction which is testable and is originally derived from a theory .

6

case study

an in-depth study of an individual, group, m or event by observation. in person meeting, structured psychological tests, recording of physiological activity, on performance on certain tasks, or from archival records.

7

pros and cons of case study

PROS:
-can be revealing and detailed

CONS:
-cannot determine cause of behaviour.

-atypical subject precludes generalization.

8

survey

peoples self-reports to a questionnaire or interview

9

pros and cons to surveys

PROS :
- reveals patterns in large numbers of people.

- easy to administer and score

CONS:
- effects of extremes are mediated

- demand characteristic : response can be influence by the questions itself
(how wording effects)

10

naturalistic observation

recording behaviour in organisms natural environment

11

pros and cons to naturalistic observations

PROS:
- subjects unaffected by presence of researches

- describes behaviour in natural contexts; wide applicability

CONS:
- cannot determine cause of behaviour

- loss of experimental control

12

correlation

two different variables are measured form individuals, and statistically analyzed for a relationship

13

positive correlation

direct relationship between two variables, when one is effected so does the other.

14

negative correlation

inverse relationship between two variables, when one is effected a certain way, the other variables is affected I the opposite direction.

15

zero correlation

no relationship, the variables have no effect on on one another,

16

pros and cons for correlation

PROS:
- may reveal relationship between variables

- can guide future by generating hypotheses

CONS:
- correlation does not mean that one variable causes the other (correlation does not imply causation)

17

components of an experimentation

- indépendant variable

- dependant variable

- experimental group

- control group

18

independent variable

factor of interest manipulated by experimentor

19

dependant variable

factor measured by experimenter ("effect")

- all extraneous factors are controlled or held constant

20

experimental group

receive manipulated level of independent variable

21

control group

receive normal level independent variable

22

pros and cons to experimentation

PROS:
- allows cause and effect conclusions

CONS:
- unexpected variables

- some variables cannot be manipulated

23

why are experiments conducted ??

- we learn cause and effect explanations

- thus, we control factors in an experiment

24

why are experiments valid ??

- experiments provide support for a theory

- theory explains universe principles of behaviour

- these occur in a lab, as well as in real life.

25

hindsight bias

- events aren't obvious beforehand, but they seem very predictable after they occur.

26

over confindence

false image of how confidence means correctness when it doesn't.

27

confirmation bias

seeking evidence confirming your beliefs--even to the exclusion of contradictory information


SOLUTION: replication of observation by others

28

sampling bias

sample is not representative of the population.


SOLUTION: random selection.

29

experimenter bias

researcher expectations influence change in dependant variable

SOLUTION: double-blind procedure, neither participant nor experimenter knows which treatment the participant is receiving.

30

MODE

most common score, typically the highest score.