What type of energy is stored in a moving object?
What happens, in terms of energy, when an object is lifted?
Its gravitational potential energy increases.
Give an equation for kinetic energy
kinetic energy (J) = ½ x mass (kg) x velocity² (m/s)
E = ½mv²
Give an equation for gravitational potential energy
Gravitational potential energy (J) = mass (kg) x height (m) x gravitational field strength (N/kg)
E = mgh
When work is done against friction or resistance, what happens?
There is less of a change in kinetic energy because some energy is dissipated through heating.
What is the original source of most of the energy on Earth?
What forms of energy do not ultimately come from the sun?
What is the source of the sun’s energy?
What are the main energy resources available to humans?
- Fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal)
- nuclear fuels
- tides and solar energy
Define renewable energy.
Energy from a source which does not run out, so can be replenished.
Which energy sources are non-renewable?
- Fossil fuels
- Nuclear fuel
Which energy sources are renewable?
- Hydroelectric and tidal energy
- Geothermal energy
- Solar power
Why is non-renewable energy used to provide electricity on a large scale?
Non-renewable sources tend to have a larger energy output per kilogram of fuel.
What is efficiency?
The ratio of useful work done to energy supplied, often given as a percentage, i.e. the percentage of energy which is converted to a useful form.
Give the equation for efficiency
Efficiency = Useful energy output/Total energy input
convert into percentage by multiplying the number by 100.
How can the efficiency of a system be increased?
- Reducing waste output (by lubrication, thermal insulation etc.)
- Recycling waste output (eg. recycling thermal waste energy as input energy)
Define work done.
- Work is done on an object when energy is transferred (from one form to another)
- Equal to the product of force and distance
Give the equation for work done
- work done (J) = force (N) x distance (m)
- W = Fd
Power is the rate at which energy is transferred, or the rate at which work is done.
Give an equation for power