Flashcards in TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSCHOLOGY Deck (52)
evidence from evolution
-brain consumes much of the body energy resources
-brain is active even during sleep
-unlikely that a 90% useless brain would have evolved
evidence from development
-without activation in childhood, neural pathways atrophy and brain cells degenerate
-unused brain areas would later degenerate
evidence from modern brain imaging
-difference behaviours activate different parts of the brain
-many activities use several brain regions simultaneuosly
what is psychology
earliest definition was the study of the mind
-what are the elements of conscious process
-how are they connected
-what are the laws of connection
analysis of ones own conscious experience
-what is the purpose of consciousness
-how are particular mental processes adaptive
-how to do people change and adapt to their environment
-how do dynamic psychological forces affect human motion and behaviour?
-how can psychological disorder be treated
emphasized the influence of unconscious mental forces
-what observable behaviours can be studied
-how are they learned
-how are they modified by the environment
-how are cognitive processes organized
whole is different then the sum of the parts
(1907) wrote: “We are making use of only a small part of our possible mental and physical resources” (p.322-323)--but didn’t mention the brain
(1935) showed that removing some of a rat’s cerebral cortex did not affect certain types of learning--but was that tissue useless?
(b.1832-d.1920) founded first psychology lab at University of Leipzig in 1879
James mark Baldwin
(b.1861-d.1934) established first psychological lab in British Empire at U of Toronto in 1889
(b.1867-d.1927) relied on introspection: analysis of one’s own conscious experience
(b.1842-d.1910) worked at Harvard University; wrote influential, The Principles of Psychology (1890)
Mary whiten calkins
(b.1863-d.1930) became first woman president of the APA (American Psychological Association) in 1905
(b.1856-d.1939), neurologist; developed psychoanalytic theory (umbrella term) and psychotherapy.
(b.1875-d.1961) extended psychodynamics; proposed all human beings share a “collective unconscious” that stores the symbols and archetypes shared by all people
(b.1878-d.1958) shifted study of mind to study of behaviour
(b.1904-d.1990): we are controlled by our environment, not by free will
- doctrine: whole is different than the sum of the parts.
- founded gestalt psychology
-how can we discover and nurture an individuals potential for growth?
- what makes a person unique.
-carl rogers and Abraham Maslow worked in humanistic psychology.
(b.1902-d.1987) developed nondirective client-centered therapy
- Abraham Maslow (b.1908-d.1970) focused on potential for self-actualization. Means what is your potential.
- How does the mind organize and process information ?
- What is the relationship between cognition and behaviors?
- George Miller (b.1920-d.2012) founded Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard U in 1960
- Ulric Neisser (b.1928-d.2012) wrote Cognitive Psychology in 1967.
- What is the relationship between brain structures and psychological functions?
- How does evolution influence behavior?
- Donald Hebb (b.1904-d.1985) developed connectionism: insightful theory of neurological functioning via neural networks
- Leda Cosmides (b.1957) helped pioneer evolutionary psychology: views the mind as a set of adaptive mechanisms.