Flashcards in THINGS SHE STRESSED PT 1 -From Steve's Study Guide (Lectures 2/13 & 2/20) Deck (87)
stroke volume formula
SV = EDV -ESV
Normal Stroke Volume is______% anything between 40 and 54% is considered _____dysfunction – meaning LV a little weak.
_____ is the immediate source of energy for myocardium to move. But it needs to be converted to ATP by the enzyme ______, when there is damage to the myocardium it will be released. One sign of ____ is the elevation of the enzyme.
CP; CK; MI
Anything that increases the HR has a __________
Speed of conduction is a_________
Force of contraction is an _________
Decreases HR, force of contraction, and speed of conduction
________refers to rate and degrees of ventricular relaxation “patient has this mechanism for their CHF, what kind do they have?” stiff non-compliant ventricles
amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the ventricle; Formula?
Stroke Volume; SV=EDV-ESV
High levels of _____promote atherosclerosis High levels of ____ inhibit atherosclerosis
What kind of intolerance promotes atherosclerosis?
For atherosclerosis you can use_________ which is a catheter into groin, femoral artery, threaded into heart and inject contrast dye and you can see blockages that way. In areas where there is not good profusion – will be _____spots indicative of ischemia or even necrosis.
First line treatment for atherosclerosis is _______
Second line treatment for atherosclerosis is ______
drugs like aspirin, or balloon laser therapy/angioplasty
Treatment for Raynauds?
warm ball or calcium channel blockers
_____________- is stimulated - results in reduction in heart rate, and speed of action potential conduction (via binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors) massaging the carotid artery can stimulate the vagus nerve – can bring the HR down until they get drugs.
Parasympathetic stimulation / Vagus nerve
can spot irregularities in impulse initiation, conduction, waves and pathways.
PR interval (PRI) is normal at ________. If it’s prolonged there is delayed conduction through the AV node, anything greater than ______ is considered a 1st degree heart block.
A normal QT interval is ________sec
A prolonged QT interval (usually >_____) means the patient is at high risk for _______and a deadly arrhythmia known as Torsades de pointes
.5; V Tach
Torsades de pointes arrythmia is terminated by high dose _____.
Tall Peaked T wave associated with _______ (will be almost as high as the QRS),
U wave associated with ________
The ST segment, when we’re doing a stress test and a stress test is positive, there will be ST segment depression, which is indicative of _____. When you have ST segment elevation its indicative of _____ or STMI (“Stemi”)
SV X HR
SV and HR have _____ relationship
______is a measure of cardiac output relative to body surface area. Done electronically. Gives you degree of tissue perfusion. anything less than _____ pt has really bad heart failure and they are not perfusing tissue.
Cardiac index; 2.2
Determinants of Stroke Volume: the volume of blood in the heart _____. The contractile capabilities _______. The pressure the LV has to overcome to eject blood through the aorta _______-
preload; contractility; after load
_____and ____ act on kidneys to remove excess water and sodium. When ___is elevated = volume overload - potentially signaling CHF.
ANP and BNP; BNP