THINGS SHE STRESSED PT 1 -From Steve's Study Guide (Lectures 2/13 & 2/20) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in THINGS SHE STRESSED PT 1 -From Steve's Study Guide (Lectures 2/13 & 2/20) Deck (87)
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31

stroke volume formula

SV = EDV -ESV

32

Normal Stroke Volume is______% anything between 40 and 54% is considered _____dysfunction – meaning LV a little weak.

55-80; systolic

33

_____ is the immediate source of energy for myocardium to move. But it needs to be converted to ATP by the enzyme ______, when there is damage to the myocardium it will be released. One sign of ____ is the elevation of the enzyme.

CP; CK; MI

34

Anything that increases the HR has a __________

chronotropic effect

35

Speed of conduction is a_________

dromotropic effect

36

Force of contraction is an _________

Inotropic effect

37

Decreases HR, force of contraction, and speed of conduction

beta blockers

38

________refers to rate and degrees of ventricular relaxation “patient has this mechanism for their CHF, what kind do they have?” stiff non-compliant ventricles

Lusitropy

39

amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the ventricle; Formula?

Stroke Volume; SV=EDV-ESV

40

High levels of _____promote atherosclerosis High levels of ____ inhibit atherosclerosis

LDL; HDL

41

What kind of intolerance promotes atherosclerosis?

Glucose/diabetes

42

For atherosclerosis you can use_________ which is a catheter into groin, femoral artery, threaded into heart and inject contrast dye and you can see blockages that way. In areas where there is not good profusion – will be _____spots indicative of ischemia or even necrosis.

angiography; cold

43

First line treatment for atherosclerosis is _______

exercise/smoking cessation;

44

Second line treatment for atherosclerosis is ______

drugs like aspirin, or balloon laser therapy/angioplasty

45

Treatment for Raynauds?

warm ball or calcium channel blockers

46

_____________- is stimulated - results in reduction in heart rate, and speed of action potential conduction (via binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors) massaging the carotid artery can stimulate the vagus nerve – can bring the HR down until they get drugs.

Parasympathetic stimulation / Vagus nerve

47

can spot irregularities in impulse initiation, conduction, waves and pathways.

ECG

48

PR interval (PRI) is normal at ________. If it’s prolonged there is delayed conduction through the AV node, anything greater than ______ is considered a 1st degree heart block.

.12-.2, .2

49

A normal QT interval is ________sec

.36-.44

50

A prolonged QT interval (usually >_____) means the patient is at high risk for _______and a deadly arrhythmia known as Torsades de pointes

.5; V Tach

51

Torsades de pointes arrythmia is terminated by high dose _____.

magnesium solfate

52

Tall Peaked T wave associated with _______ (will be almost as high as the QRS),

hyperkalemia

53

U wave associated with ________

hypokalemia

54

The ST segment, when we’re doing a stress test and a stress test is positive, there will be ST segment depression, which is indicative of _____. When you have ST segment elevation its indicative of _____ or STMI (“Stemi”)

ischemia; MI

55

CO formula

SV X HR

56

SV and HR have _____ relationship

inverse

57

______is a measure of cardiac output relative to body surface area. Done electronically. Gives you degree of tissue perfusion. anything less than _____ pt has really bad heart failure and they are not perfusing tissue.

Cardiac index; 2.2

58

Determinants of Stroke Volume: the volume of blood in the heart _____. The contractile capabilities _______. The pressure the LV has to overcome to eject blood through the aorta _______-

preload; contractility; after load

59

_____and ____ act on kidneys to remove excess water and sodium. When ___is elevated = volume overload - potentially signaling CHF.

ANP and BNP; BNP

60

provides electrical information Echo – can do a transthoracic or transesophagea

ECG