Flashcards in Theory Deck (55)
According to Minuchin, the therapist's methods for creating a therapeutic system with a family and of positioning himself/herself as its leader are known as:
A therapist working with a couple gives the following instructions:
Get ready for bed; then I want you [the wife] to lie on your belly; then you [the husband] caress her back as gently and sensitively as you can; move your hands very slowly; do no more. In the meantime, I want you [the wife] to be "selfish" and just concentrate.
The therapist is here using a technique developed by Masters and Johnson and known as:
A family is referred for therapy to a family therapist in private practice. The son, age 17, has recently been discharged from a psychiatric hospital but has remained in individual therapy with a psychiatrist. He has a history of alcoholism and since his discharge has two charges pending against him for driving while intoxicated. The parents convey to the family therapist their concern that the psychiatrist is unaware of their son's recent alcohol abuse or of the pending charges. In this situation, the most appropriate initial approach for the family therapist would be to:
encourage the son to talk to his therapist and ask the family members to sign a release of information form to facilitate coordination of treatment
may involve hidden payoffs for the resistant family
In the use of videotape in working with families, the most essential condition is that:
all those to be taped agree to its use
Family Systems Theory views the family as what type of unit.
C: “emotional:” Dr. Murray Bowen, a psychiatrist, is the originator of the Family Systems Theory. The basic idea of the theory asserts that families are connected strongly in an emotional manner. Even when people may feel emotionally distant from the family unit, often this feeling of distance is a perception rather than a reality, as an emotional interdependence exists within the family unit.
Family Systems Theory consists of what eight interlocking concepts?
2. Differentiation of Self
3. Nuclear Family Emotional System
4. Family Projection Process
5. Multigenerational Transmission Process
6. Emotional Cutoff
7. Sibling Position
8. Societal Emotional Process
If one unit of the family is able to change his/her individual dysfunctional behavior, then other family unit members also can change productively. To which of the following choices does this statement most closely relate?
a. marital discord theory
b. Ericksonian family theory
c. Freudian psychoanalytic theory
d. systemic coaching
D: “systemic coaching:” Systemic coaching analyzes relationships with the eventual purpose of altering dysfunctional behavior. This systemic approach views humans as “systems” rather than separate individuals (separate from the environment in which they reside). Systemic coaching seeks to assist the patient in setting goals and consistently moving toward those goals.
What type of approach is also known as “reality therapy”?
a. Humanistic therapy
d. Somatic therapy
B: “cognitive-behavioral:” Reality therapy is a cognitive-behavioral approach (developed by William Glasser). This type of therapy focuses on what is happening in the patient’s current life and also looks to the patient’s future. Unlike many types of therapy that look for the root cause of the problem, Reality Therapy employs a problem-solving approach in order to address the current choices of behavior and how those choices can affect future outcomes in the patient’s life.
In Psychoeducation, family members are:
a. included with the patient in the training.
b. discouraged from taking part.
c. never present.
d. part of the teaching team.
A: “included with the patient in the training:” The development of Psychoeducation generally is attributed to C.M. Anderson and his work in the treatment of schizophrenia. The basic idea of Psychoeducation is educating the patient and family so the particulars of the condition are made clearer, and therefore more easily managed.
Which of the following is most widely known for being a family therapy pioneer?
a. Jay Haley
b. Carl Rogers
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Jean Piaget
A: “Jay Haley:” Jay Haley is one of the most widely known professionals in the field of family therapy. He was not only a pioneer in family therapy, but he was also a strong advocate of family therapy in both lay and professional settings. His books on strategic family therapy stress the roles of power and hierarchy in the family structure.
Strategic Family Therapy often is referred to as:
a. anteractive therapy.
b. relationship therapy.
c. brief therapy.
C: “brief therapy:” Strategic therapies focus on needed changes rather than length of time of involvement in therapy. Often these kinds of therapies consist of approximately ten therapy sessions. As such, this kind of therapy employs a very goal-
directed approach, evaluates what already has been tried, and incorporates new strategies to affect change in a time-efficient manner.
To which of the following does the term “family-of-origin” work refer?
a. Examining genealogical links to ancestry
b. examining and/or changing patterns of interaction that formed in an individual’s family upbringing c. something that only applies to the therapist
d. something that only applies to patients
B: “examining and/or changing patterns of interaction that formed in an individual’s family upbringing:” Family-of-origin work applies both to the therapist and to the therapist’s work with patients. The therapist must resolve his/her own learned patterns of interaction in order to work effectively in the therapy setting with patients with their own family-of-origin issues.
Strategic family therapy sometimes is called
a. goal-activated therapy.
c. problem solving therapy.
d. the Milan Model.
C: “problem solving therapy:” Accordingly, Strategic family therapy focuses on working with the family members to define the problem, aiding the family in understanding the problem, and then working with the family members to solve the problem. Due to Strategic family therapy’s strong problem solving approach, often the therapy is named according to its prevailing characteristic.
Which of the following is a major strength of Bowen family theory?
a. its attention upon past family interaction as a means by which to avoid future problems
b. a long history of statistical data to back up its theory
c. its focus on the “quick fix”
d. the focus on present issues rather than looking to the past for answers
A: “its attention upon past family interaction as a means by which to avoid future problems:” Helping the patient in identifying and understanding the reasons for past family behavior offers an aid in dealing with present and future problems and is a time-efficient approach, as well.
Systemic family therapy often is called
a. the Milan Model.
b. Ericksonian therapy.
c. traditional psychotherapy.
d. rational-emotive therapy.
A: “the Milan Model:” Systemic family therapy often is called the Milan model because it was developed in Milan, Italy by Mara Salvini Palazzoli and several others. This therapeutic approach does not concern itself with past causes or diagnosis; rather, it focuses on helping develop new patterns to replace problematic ones.
Bowen family therapy uses genograms as
a. a way to lengthen the therapeutic process.
b. a means by which to set standards for therapy
c. a method to determine genetic heredity.
d. a visual representation of a family.
D: “a visual representation of a family:” Using geometric figures, the genogram shows a patient’s family tree. This visual detailing often covers over three generations and is a timesaving approach that helps both patient and therapist review patterns and other useful information.
In Bowen theory, triangles one way to
a. minimize malingering.
b. understand family relationships.
c. specifically address hostile therapy patients.
d. deal with specific childhood issues.
B: “understand family relationships:” A “triangle” exists between two people and an outsider, and it is considered an emotional building block and the smallest stable relationship system. Anxiety exists within the triangle, with one person sometimes feeling like the odd-person-out and seeking change. Triangles can be either healthy or unhealthy.
Regarding sibling positions as relating to marriage, a youngest son would do best to
a. marry an eldest daughter.
b. never marry.
c. marry a youngest daughter.
d. marry a middle daughter.
A: “marry an eldest daughter:” Bowenian therapists believe that personality characteristics can develop because of the order in which an individual is born into a family. In this case, for example, a youngest son may be accustomed to being doted upon and cared for. By contrast, the eldest daughter is accustomed to taking care of others. Therefore, the youngest son and eldest daughter may compliment each other’s needs well.
In Bowenian family therapy, what does detriangulation allow a patient to do?
a. it allows a patient leave therapy early
b. it allows a patient to remain emotionally present, rather than relying on intellect. c. it allows the patient to be in contact while remaining emotionally separate
d. allows the patient to overlook intellectual confusion until a later point in therapy
C: “it allows the patient to be in contact while remaining emotionally separate:” In detriangulation, patients learn to communicate by responding rather than by reacting on an emotional level.
To which of the following does the phrase “differentiation of self” refer?
a. a type of self-help strategy
b. a way to help children overcome parent separation issues
c. a psychotic therapeutic goal
d. the ability to separate thoughts and feelings
D: “the ability to separate thoughts and feelings:” Differentiation of self is the ability to think logically without one’s feelings being engaged. In the family therapy setting
, this ability also proves useful in helping the patient think about things apart from the influence of the family structure.
Asking the family to develop a family crest or finish sentences such as “being close in this family is” are ways to gain insight into
a. family genograms.
b. family myths.
c. Somatic therapy.
d. the Milan Model.
B: “family myths:” Family myths are essentially the ideology of the family. They are the common ways of interacting within a particular family unit, upon which the family members agree. While they tend to be distortions of reality, they generally are understood within the family unit. Roles are often assigned to members of the family based on these myths.
The abandonment of a family ritual is often related to
a. the loss of a beloved pet.
b. family members moving away from home.
c. the onset of dysfunction within the family structure.
d. a new member entering the family.
C: “the onset of dysfunction within the family structure:” A family identity is often lacking when the family members cannot describe family rituals that they practice. Likewise, when a patient makes statements such as, “we used to always have a birthday dinner, but don’t anymore,” one often can note the onset of dysfunction prior to the abandonment of that family ritual.
In family therapy, which of the following statements is described best by the term “disengagement”?
a. the emotional “disconnect” between adult and child
b. an elevated level of intimacy between family members
c. the ending of an engagement to marry
d. the traits of a family
D: “the traits of a family:” The term “disengagement” often describes the traits of a family or the current type of family interaction or functioning. Disengaged families lack intimacy between the members. Family members may feel isolated, have limited understanding of each other, and have limited common interests or interaction.
A ten year-old directs his younger siblings in their household duties and helps them with homework.
Which of the following terms describe these types of actions?
a. inappropriate directiveness
b. excessive responsibility
d. parental-child discord
C: “parentification:” Parentification is a concept used in the assessment of the family. It refers to a non-parent individual taking on the parent role. This role confusion can be problematic for both the individual taking on the role (as they may not be equipped to do so), and for the individuals being parented (as the “parent” may not be able to meet the needs of those persons being parented).
21. Sexual problems between parents in the family structure are often
a. viewed as dysfunctional relationship issues and referred elsewhere. b. addressed first, prior to any family therapy being initiated.
c. dismissed as unimportant.
d. included in the family therapy process as a whole.
A: “viewed as dysfunctional relationship issues and referred elsewhere:” Sexual issues are often viewed in terms of relationship issues, and not addressed as a significant part of the family therapy process. However, various assessment methods can clarify the sexual dysfunction (such as a sexual genogram and various questionnaires).
Which of the following issues does the McAndrew Scale assess?
a. psychotic symptoms
b. paranoid tendencies
c. alcohol abuse
d. antisocial traits
C: “alcohol abuse:” The McAndrew Alcoholism Scale was developed in 1965 from the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). This assessment is a forty-nine item objective test used as a measure of substance abuse (specifically alcohol).
If a family member accuses one of your patients as having an alcohol problem, which of the following tests would you most likely use to gain further insight into the situation?
D: “MAST:” Developed in 1971, the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) consists of twenty-two questions that aid the clinician in determining the intensity of a drug problem. This assessment is considered one of the most accurate screening tests available.
The FILE screening test most closely relates to which of the following?
b. child disciplinary problems
c. marital discord
d. substance abuse
A: “stress:” FILE (Family Inventory of Life Events), is a quick-to-use measure of family stress. The test is a seventy-one item screening tool that reveals the number of stressing life events that have occurred in the family, and this assessment can be completed by more than one family member. Finally, it can also be used within any family structure.