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Flashcards in The Urban World (rio) Deck (44)
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1

How has distribution been affected ?

Heavy populations near supplies of ore and coal from industrial revolution

Lowland areas - nearer to build on

London - financial hub, many industries

Coastal areas- ports and harbours

2

Factors involved with migration?

Civil war
Flooding
Population increase
High crime


Higher employment
Safer
Good climate
Freedom

3

Pull factors for an URBAN area

Higher quality of life
Well paid jobs
Heath care
Entertainment
Education
Better public transport

4

Counter urbanisation - steps

1. Large factories and mining companies moved to LEDCS as there's cheap resources and labour
2. People working in inner city get unemployed
3. Unemployment rates= crime and poor bourses
4. People attached to pull factors of rural
5.begin to move to countryside

5

Push factors - rural area

Few doctors and hospitals
Poverty
Few Opputinities
Farming is poorly paid
Desertification
Poor harvest
Schools - basic education

6

Factors causing natural increase

Improvements to Heath care
Earthy food source
End of war - baby boom

7

Mega cities

VERY large city that's more densely populated per square metre
Over 10 million people
28 in 2015

8

Types of mega cities

Slow growing
Growing
Rapid growing

9

SLOW GROWING mega city?

Population- 70%+ urbanised
No squatter settlements
Eg SE Asia, Europe, North America
LA Tokyo

10

GRowing mega city?

Population 40-50% urban
Eg SE Asia and South America
Rio, Shanghai

11

Rapid growing mega cities

South/ SE Asia and Africa

Less that 50% urban population
20% squatter settlements

Eg mumbais , Lagos

12

Why is urbanisation is HICS slowing down>

Areas already been urbanised
Not enough room
Need planning permission- makes it slower
Older people moving to rural areas - slows
Companies employ people that work from home in rural areas
Factories move to LEDCS and unemployed move to rural

13

Where is RIO DE JANERIO

Large city
BRAZil, on the Atlantic coast
Southern eastern art of the country
2nd largest county in Brazil
Amazon rainforest to the north west
Many beaches

14

Land use zones in Rio - NORTH

MACARACA stadium
International airports and industrial areas
Many of rios 1000 slums are located in the nort zone and most of these slums are very poor, high crime

15

West zone

Many luxury apartments and shopping malls
Barbra de tyuca has changed from lower - wealthy class
Main Olympic stadiums adn competitor village
Industrial area of camp grand has low quality housing around steel works

16

South zone

Only developed when tunnels where cut into mountain
Rios most exclusive and famous destinations including inpanema adn copachana beach
Luxury flats, expensive hotels and restaurants
Wealthiest district

17

Centre zone

Historic and financial centre
HQ of Brazilian companies
The cities central business district and main shopping area
Modern skyscrapers and historic buildings

18

Main social challenges in RIO

Water
Education
Health care
Energy

19

WATER - challenge in Rio and the solution

Water used in industries resulted in local people receiving less
Situation was made worse by droughts, leaking pipes, fraud adn illegal access
Paraibuna and Santa braca reservoirs declared empty in 2015

SOLUTION
Water supplies in favelas and Olympic park iporived
Over 300 km of pipes were laid for new treatment plants built between 1998-2014
By 2014, 95% of population had man water supply

20

EDUCATION - challenge adn solution in RIO

Compulsory for children aged 6-14 in Brazil but only 1/2 children continue after 14
Shortage of schools, lack of money and need for work ,low pay for teachers and poor training

SOLUTION
Encouraging local people to get involved
Giving school grants to the poor
Making money available for people to get free sport lessons in rochina

21

Healthcare - solution and problem

In 2015, only 55% of the city had the local health clinic
Poor in west zone - where life expectancies is 45 and there's a 21/1000 infant mortality rate

SOLUTION
Health kits to people's home

22

Energy - challenge and solution.

The whole city suffers from frequent blackouts due to a shortage of electricity
Growing population and olympics making things worse
People tap into supplies - risky and unsafe

SOLUTION
60km new power lines
New nuclear generator
New simplicias hydroelectric complex, increase supply of electricity by 30% , cost 2 bullion

23

Environmental problems and solutions - traffic conjestion

No, of car. Hvs grown by 40% In the last decade
Increases stress adn pollution levels

Solution
New toll roads. Centre
Metro Custer expanded
Expansion of he metro system means less will drive
Coast roads one way during rush hours

24

Air pollution - problem

Causes 5000 deaths pa in RIO
Pollutants from factory chimneys, dust form Atlantic mines

25

Water pollution - problem and solution

Guanabara bay is highly polluted causing a major threat to wildlife
Commercial fishing has declined by 90% in the last 20 years because of not enough oxygen in the sea
There's a danger pollution could affect bleachers
Many of 55 rivers flowing into bays are polluted

200 tonnes of sewage pass into bay each day

SOLUTION
Overseas aid used to reduce the amount o sewage released
12 new seaward works bhut since 2004
Ships fined for discharging fuel into bay
5km if new Sewage pipes

26

Waste pollution - problem and solution

Favelas
Dumped
Pollutants

Solutions
Power plant set up near university of Rio and is using biogas form rotting rubbing
Consumes 3o tonnes of rubbish per day and produces enough electricity for 1000 homes

27

Physical causes of environmental challenges

Mountains -limit space for building and make developments of transport systems difficult and costly

Squatter settlements on landslides are prone to hill slips

28

Economic challenges - unemployment

In favelas - over 20%
Street vendors, drivers, maids
Many unemployed
Risen because of deep recession that hit Rio in 2013

SOLUTIONS
Using education to reduce youth unemployment
Courses are available for adults
Practical skill based courses
Free child care for teen adults

29

Crime - economic challenge

Stree crime
Robbery

Solutions
- police have taken control of crime - dominated complex and 30 smaller favelas
- pacifying police units were established in 2o13 to reclaim favelas from drug dealers
- police fo round favelas , , arresting
- tougher punishement

30

Favelas

Full of poor
60% b the suburbs
Edge of the city UN urban industrial areas where jobs are available so they are close to places they can earn money
Some on steel sides where access in difficult