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What are the three marks of existence?

Anicca, dukkha and anatta


What are the two levels of change?

- Gross level of change
- Momentary change


What is gross-level change?

Change observed with senses. Doesn't require scientific method to observe it


Examples of gross-level change

Weather, seasons, decay and withering


What is momentary change?

Change unaware of subtle change that is constant from moment to moment. Requires scientific process to allow observation


Examples of momentary change

Atomic, molecular level


Do abstract concepts (time, space,eternal dharma etc) correspond to something that objectively exists?

-Concepts- ways of interpreting our experience of the world- giving MEANING
-Concepts are made up "HUMAN CONSTRUCT"
- Buddhists concepts are not real, only conventional


What is the problem of the relationship between continuity and change?

- Buddhists argue that everything is changing
- Momentary change is like a film reel
- A continuum of causally linked moments; gives the appearance of a continuous sequence


Why does failure to understand and accept change (anicca) cause suffering (dukkha)?

- People attachments and crave or desire for things to remain the same
- People cannot 'let go' of cravings and so when things do end or change they aren't ready and will suffer more
- Accepting the change is a natural part of life will make us happier because we can then go with the flow


What are the main benefits of meditating on change?

- If we know things will change,wither, decay, end or die we are less likely to be attached and can 'let go' more easily when the time comes
- Let go- desire, grasp, selfishness


What are the reasons of meditating on change?

1) To understand is an experimental way not intellectual, how impermanence is part of life
2) Helps free the mind from attachments & dukkha
3) To gain enlightenment
4) To become aware of temporary nature of life


What objects do some Buddhists meditate on to help them understand change?

Flowers are often used as a focus of meditation because their beauty does not last long and therefore symbolise impermanence. The other image that is often used is that of the Buddha lying on his right side passing into parinirvana because this is a reminder that everything are subject to death.


What are the three types of dukkha?

1. Dukkha-dukkha
2. Viparinama-dukkha
3. Samkhara-dukkha


What is dukkha-dukkha?

Al kind of suffering e.g. birth, old age, sickness, death etc


What is viparinama dukkha?

Suffering produced by change. Pleasant and happy feelings or conditions in life are not permanent. They will change.


What is samkhara-dukkha?

A combination of ever-changing mental and physical forces which can be divided into five aggregates


What are the 4 types of craving?

1. Kama
2. Bhava
3. Vibhava
4. Dhamma


What is kama tanha?

Thirst for sense pleasures


What is bhava tanha?

Thirst for existence and becoming. To want something or be someone


What is vibhava tanha?

Thirst for non existence or to get rid of the unpleasant experiences in life


What is dhamma tanha?

Thirst for ideas and ideals, views, opinions, theories, concepts and beliefs


Why is finding a solution to dukkha important to the Buddha?

To find inner happiness and end the cycle of samsara so one is truly free


How did the Buddha say that dukkha could be stopped?

To find the cessation of dukkha and by doing this follow the noble eightfold path


What was the lesson learnt in the parable of the mustard seed?

That in order to stop the suffering one must 'let go' and follow the noble eightfold path


What is anatta?

no fixed self, no soul


What are the 5 skandhas?

1. Body or form
2. Feelings or sensations
3. Perceptions
4. Mental formations
5. Consiousness


What is form?

- Physical factor
- Refers to the material aspect of existence; physical factor
- Made up of 4 elements:
1) Solidity/matter
2) Cohesion
3) Energy
4) Motion
- From the interaction of these- body of flesh, blood


What are feelings & sensations?

- Sensations are experienced through the contact of our sense organs with the external world
- Hedonic tone or 'taste' of any experience
- Includes sensations arising from the body and mental feelings


What are perceptions?

Faculty of identifying objects as mental and physical. Perceptions recognise, identify and classify and put sensory experience into words.


What are mental formations?

Mental conditioning, compulsions and complex ideas that results from karma accumulated in this life and from previous lives.