Flashcards in The role of civic organizations in the protests (6) Deck (21)
Community or civic ______ were a major feature of these protests. They were usually referred to as _____.
How did civic groups originate?
Some of these originated as parent-student committees, women's organizations, youth groups or residents' associations
What were civic groups concentrated on?
Although they were often concentrated on specific issues (such as township rents or bus fare increases), they became part of the wider spread of resistance.
What did civic groups often act as?
They often acted as pressure groups to persuade the authorities to improve facilities and they tried to mobilize people to take action to improve the quality of their lives.
What forms of activism did civic groups adopt?
Civics around the country joined in rent boycotts, consumer boycotts, worker stay-aways, and boycotts of local elections. At times these boycotts led to violent confrontations with the police.
Which councils did the civics serve and what were they responsible for?
The civics targeted black councillors who served on the Community Councils established by the government. These councils were responsible for township administration, which was financed by money collected from local residents for rents and service charges.
What were those serving on Community Councils considered?
Those who served on them were considered to be collaborators of the government, and their role in collecting rents and service charges made them even more unpopular.
Were councillors and black police officers popular?
No, many councillors and black police officers were forced to resign or to flee the townships. Some that remained suffered gruesome deaths: they were 'necklaced' by having a tire filled with petrol placed around their necks and set alight.
What was 'people's power'?
As the state's administration in many townships broke down, civic organizations stepped in to replace it with what was referred to as `people's power
What was started to provide alternative systems of community action and justice?
Street and area committees and' people's courts' were formed to provide alternative systems of community action and justice.
What was the UDF?
The United Democratic Front (UDF) was a non-racial alliance that was launched in Mitchell's Plain near Cape Town in 1983.
Among the ___ national, regional and local organizations which made up the ___ there were trade unions, and civic, community, student, women's, religious, sports, political and business organizations.
What did the UDF base its policies on?
The UDF was supported by the ANC in exile, and based its policies on the Freedom Charter.
It quickly attracted a huge following and by 1985 had the support of an estimated ____ million members.
Name some of the prominent leaders of UDF. (4)
Prominent leaders included Archbishop Desmond Tutu and the Reverend Allan Boesak, as well as activists from the 1950s, such as Albertina Sisulu and Helen Joseph.
What did the UDF promote?
The UDF promoted a boycott of elections for the tricameral parliament and local councils in the townships, and it also organized rent boycotts, school protests, worker stay-aways and consumer boycotts.
Who did the UDF work with?
The UDF worked closely with the civics in the sustained resistance between 1984 and 1986.
What happened in relation to trials UDF leaders were faced with?
A number of UDF leaders faced treason charges in two highly publicized trials. They were accused of plotting with the banned ANC and SACP to overthrow the state
What was the result of these trials?
In the first of these trials, the 16 accused, which included Albertina Sisulu, were acquitted. In the Delmas treason trial, the 19 accused were initially convicted, though this was later set aside.
How did the UDF play a key role in intensifying the struggle against apartheid on a national scale?
By bringing together such a wide range of organizations and with its non-racial approach, the UDF was able to unify and co-ordinate opposition and make range it more effective.