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Flashcards in The presidency Deck (42)
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Example of an executive agreement

NAFTA (1994)


Example of a signing statement

Obama on the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act (2013)


Presidential persuasion through perks

Personal phone-call (Clinton to Mezvinsky in 1993)
Offer to help with legislation that benefit's that congressman's state or district
Meeting at the Oval Office or Capitol Hill
Offer to campaign for them at the next election


Pro importance of Cabinet

Contains some of the most important people in the executive branch
Chaired by the President
Each position is extremely powerful


Anti importance of Cabinet

No doctrine of collective responsibility
Divided loyalties (Congress / own departmental bureaucracy / pressure groups)
Can be subordinate to EXOP
President not required to consult the cabinet


A balanced cabinet

Gender (4 women under Obama)
Race (6 BAME under Obama)


Presidential control of foreign policy

Conducts negotiations or directs them - Russia/NK/Cuba
Signs the treaties and sets the diplomatic tone
Requires the Senate to ratify treaties, but can use Executive Agreements
Commander-in-chief, but only Congress can declare war


President's power is the power to persuade / imperial or imperilled presidency

Depends on size of his mandate
Depends on his desire to retain the respect of Congress - use of direct authority
No, as he has both constitutional and extra-constitutional powers, although most of these requires an element of persuasion


Informal powers over formal powers

Formal powers limited by the need to persuade people
Extra-Constitutional powers
Depends on the size of the President's mandate


The US presidency is weak at home, and strong abroad"

Strong abroad - C-i-C, Head of State, summits, EA's
Treaties subject to ratification by Senate, requires Congressional approval for deployment of troops, victory in war not always guaranteed
Weak at home - Legislation / Oversight
But - Direct authority, oversight flaws


Success rate of presidential vetoes



International agreements split

90% EAs
10% treaties