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Flashcards in The presidency Deck (42)
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1

Where are the powers of the President laid out?

Article 2 of the Constitution.

2

Powers of the President

Propose legislation
Submit the annual budget
Sign / veto legislation
Nominate executive branch officials / judiciary
Act as CEO / commander-in-chief / head of state
Negotiate treaties
Pardon

3

Where can the President propose legislation?

State of the Union address
Press conference
Announcement at a public event

4

Obama's 2013 State of the Union address

Promoted his policy proposals on gun control and immigration reform

5

Which Obama veto did Congress override?

Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act
September 2016

6

What proportion of the Senate is required to ratify a treaty?

2/3

7

Example of a presidential pardon

Clinton for Mark Rich

8

Where in the Constitution is the Cabinet mentioned?

The Cabinet isn't mentioned at all in the Constitution

9

What is EXOP?

Executive Office of the President
The umbrella term for the top staff agencies in the White House that assist the president in carrying out the major responsibilities of office.

10

Key offices of EXOP

The White House Office
The Office of Management and Budget
The National Security Council

11

Functions of the OMB

Advise the President on the allocation of federal funds in the annual budget
Oversee the spending of all federal departments and agencies
Act as a clearing house for all executive initiatives

12

Who coined the term "power to persuade"?

Richard Neustadt

13

Presidential persuasion through people

The vice president
Members of the Office of Legislative Affairs (official lobbyists)
Cabinet Officers
Party leadership in Congress

14

Direct authority of the President

Executive orders
Executive agreements
Signing statements
Recess appointments

15

Imperial presidency

A presidency characterised by the misuse of presidential powers

16

Examples of an imperial presidency

Korea
Cuba
Vietnam

17

Imperilled presidency

A presidency characterised by ineffectiveness and weakness, resulting from congressional over-assertiveness

18

Who coined the term "imperilled presidency"

President Gerald Ford

19

Examples of an imperilled presidency

The Case Act (1972) forced Presidents to inform Congress of all executive agreements made with foreign states

20

What can Congress do to limit presidential power?

Amend, delay or reject the President's legislative proposals
Override the President's veto
Amend the President's budgetary requests (power of the purse)
Check the President's commander-in-chief power (power to declare war + power of the purse)
Refuse to ratify treaties
Reject presidential nominations
Investigate and impeach the executive branch

21

What can the Supreme Court do to limit Presidential power?

Declare Presidential actions as unconstitutional
eg. NLRB v Noel Canning 2014

22

Factors limiting Presidential power

Congress
The Supreme Court
Pressure groups
Federal bureaucracy
State governments

23

Factors affecting presidential success

Electoral mandate
Public approval
First/second term
Unified/divided government
Crises

24

Electoral mandate examples

In 1984 Reagan won 59% of the vote
In 2000, Bush did not win the popular vote v Al Gore

25

Public approval examples

Bush's approval rating reached 90% post 9/11
Bush's approval rating rarely went above 40% during his last three years in office, reaching 25% in 2008

Bill Clinton's high approval ratings saved him from conviction in the Senate

26

First/second term examples

Average first-year presidential support score since 1980 = 83%
Average last-year presidential support score since 1980 = 48%
VS
Bill Clinton approval rating went up from 50% to 61%

27

Unified/divided government examples

Average presidential support score for years of unified government since 1992 = 83%
Average presidential support score for years of divided government since 1992 = 53%

28

Crises examples

9/11
Ousting Saddam Hussein from Kuwait
OKC bombing

29

Example of an executive order

EO 8802
FDR
1941
Explicitly prohibited racial discrimination and set up the Federal Employment Practice Committee to implement it

30

Example of a recess appointment

Obama to the National Labour Relations Board (2012)