Flashcards in The Oesophagus and Stomach Deck (39)
State the basic plan of the gut wall from the lumen outwards.
Epithelium, lamina propria, submucosa, muscularis, serosa/adventitia
There are nerve plexuses in the submucosa and muscularis
Serosa is a mixture of connective tissue and epithelium
Adventitia is only connective tissue
What vertebral level does the oesophagus start at?
How long is the average oesophagus?
At what vertebral level does the oesophagus pierce the diaphragm?
Describe the cell type in the upper oesophagus and the reason for having this cell type.
Non-keratinising stratified squamous - this is good for protection - acts as a barrier and prevents the loss of water through the epithelium
What are the two important sphincters in the oesophagus?
Upper oesophageal sphincter and the lower oesophageal sphincter
Describe the difference in structure of the lower and upper oesophageal sphincters.
The upper oesophageal sphincter is made up of only skeletal muscle whereas the lower oesophageal sphincter consists of both skeletal and smooth muscle.
What state are the sphincters in when there is no food in the mouth?
They are tonically active meaning that they are both closed.
What happens when food goes into the mouth?
When food goes into the mouth, a reflex is set up by the swallowing centre in the brain leading to peristalsis.
How does muscle type change as you pass down the oesophagus?
You go from skeletal to smooth muscle as you move down the oesophagus.
How does the innervation change as you pass down the oesophagus?
It goes from motor neurones to autonomic nervous system as you move down the oesophagus.
What two types of muscle are in the oesophagus?
Circular and longitudinal
What is the difference between the primary and secondary peristaltic waves?
Secondary peristaltic wave is initiated after the primary if the food gets stuck.
The lower oesophageal sphincter is not considered a true anatomical sphincter. What is it formed by?
Diaphragm (muscular part), greater curvature of the stomach folding inwards, difference in pressure between the thorax and abdomen
What are the gastric folds in the stomach lining called and what is the point in them?
Rugae - they increase surface area
Describe the transition in epithelium from the oesophagus to the stomach.
Oesophagus is made up of non-keratinising stratified squamous epithelia and the stomach epithelium is made up of simple columnar epithelium
What are the 4/5 regions of the stomach?
Cardiac, Fundus, Body, Pylorus and Pyloric Antrum
Certain substances are produced in certain regions of the stomach.
State which substances are produced in which regions.
Cardiac and Pyloric regions - mucus only
Fundus and Body - pepsinogen, HCl, mucus
Antrum - gastrin
What feature do the mucus secreting cells of the stomach have that protects them from the acidity of the stomach?
They secrete HCO3- that sits on top of these cells and neutralises the acid that comes into contact with its surface
How much acid is produced by the stomach per day and what is the concentration of protons?
What do Gastric Chief Cells produce?
Gastric Chief Cells produce pepsinogen
State some histological features of Gastric Chief Cells.
They have a lot of RER
They have Golgi apparatus for packaging and modifying for export
They have a lot of vesicles at the apical membrane
State three structural features of the resting parietal cell.
Numerous mitochondria - provide energy for the active transport of protons into the lumen of the stomach
Cytoplasmic Tubulovesicles - contain H+/K+ ATPase channels
Internal Canaliculi - fluid filled reservoirs present within the resting parietal cell
What is the role of parietal cells?
Parietal cells pump protons into the lumen of the stomach and make it more acidic
Describe the mechanism by which active parietal cells increase the proton concentration in the stomach.
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the cell from the blood and reacts with water with the action of carbonic anhydrase to produce bicarbonate and a proton. A sodium-potassium exchanger bring one potassium in and one sodium out. The K+ follows the concentration gradient and diffuses into the canaliculi. HCO3- is exchanged for Cl- - the Cl- then moves down the concentration gradient into the canaliculi. Then, ATP is used to actively transport H+ into the canaliculi with K+ moving out. There is a massive ATP driven movement of protons into the stomach lumen.
What is the effect of inhibiting carbonic anhydrase?
This reduces the acid producing ability of the parietal cells because it is no longer able to convert water and carbon dioxide into H2CO3 (so H+ and HCO3- isn't generated)
What two proteins do you need a lot of to increase the acidity of the stomach?
Carbonic Anhydrase and H+/K+ ATPase
How does pepsinogen turn into pepsin?
The acid makes the pepsinogen unfold and this causes autocatalysis (pepsinogen metabolises itself) of pepsinogen to produce pepsin.
What are the two stimuli for gastrin production?
Acid production itself
Local peptide hormones that are being produced by pepsin
What is the effect of gastrin?
Gastrin is produced in the pyloric antrum and passes into the bloodstream before returning to the lumen of the stomach where it causes an increase in acid secretion by the stomach epithelium.