What are some factors that affects the gut microbiota?
Is microbial dysbiosis (imbalance) a cause or consequence of disease?
It is still unknown
What are examples of diseases that can be caused by microbes that normally live asymptomatically in the host?
C. Difficile diarrhoea
Urinary tract infections
What is an example of a disease that can occur when gut microbes translocate to other body sites?
Where can gut bacterium often translocate to?
How has the incidence of infectious and immune diseases changed over the last 70 years?
Infectious diseases have been declining
Immune diseases have been increasing
Why has the incidence of infectious disease declined over the last 70 years?
Better disease treatment
What has the incidence of immune diseases rised in the last 70 years?
Effect on microbiota possibly
What does inflammation in IBD result due to?
Dysregulated host immune response to the gut microbiota
How is the gut bacterial diversity different for people with IBD?
Less diverse than people who do not have IBD
What does it mean that IBD typically manifests in a non-uniform manner?
Patients have regions of healthy tissue adjacent to inflammed regions
What is an example of a bacterium that is elevated in Crohn's disease?
Why is it very difficult to entangle cause from effect?
Many features of IBD itself could affect the microbiota, such as antibiotic use, inflammation, diarrhoea (affects transit time), host diet and host genotype
What can reduced bacterial diversity and increase in Enterobacteriaceae occur due to?
Broad spectrum antibiotic use
What impact does antibiotics have on the gut microbiota?
Decreases diversity and increases Enterobacteriaceae
How does inflammation change the gut microbiota?
How does diarrhoea alter the gut microbiota?
Decreased transit time alters microbial composition
How does the hosts diet alter the gut microbiota?
Less fibre causes changes to microbiota composition
What is currently being research in terms of the contents of the gut microbiota?
Manipulating the microbioa to redress the dysbosis and relieve symptoms of IBD
How can the microbiota of the gut possible be manipulated to fix a reduction in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii numbers?
Provide specific prebiotics designed to boost numbers of F. Praesnitzii
Design F. Praesnitzii as a biotherapeutic agent
How can the microbiota of the gut possible be manipulated to fix an increase in Enterobacteriaceae numbers?
Reduce antibiotic use to prevent decline in commensals
What, and how, do the two main species of bacteria change in IBD?
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreases
What can be changed in someones diet to increase bacterial diversity?
What does the success of existing probiotics/prebiotics depend on?
What is a probiotic?
Live microorganism which, when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host (basically add live bacteria)
What is a prebiotic?
A substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit (basically food for resident bacteria)
What are the conclusions of most studies that look at the effectiveness of probiotics?
They are beneficial in treatment and prevention of GI diseases
What are the different mechanisms of action for probiotics?
Do probiotics become permanent residents in the gut?
No, but their products and actions can still be beneficial under certain circumstances
Why is the species and strain important when selecting probiotics?
Different species (even strains) have different effects
Individual response varies due to existing variation in microbiota