The Microbiota of the GI Tract 2 Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > The Microbiota of the GI Tract 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Microbiota of the GI Tract 2 Deck (51)
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1

What are some factors that affects the gut microbiota?

Environment

Diet

Life stage

Disease

Faecal transplant

Prebiotics

Antibiotics

Probiotics

2

Is microbial dysbiosis (imbalance) a cause or consequence of disease?

It is still unknown

3

What are examples of diseases that can be caused by microbes that normally live asymptomatically in the host?

MRSA infection

Strep throat

Gingivitis

Acne

Meningitis

Pneumonia

C. Difficile diarrhoea

Thurst

Urinary tract infections

Gastric cancer

4

What is an example of a disease that can occur when gut microbes translocate to other body sites?

Sepsis

5

Where can gut bacterium often translocate to?

Bloodstream

6

How has the incidence of infectious and immune diseases changed over the last 70 years?

Infectious diseases have been declining

Immune diseases have been increasing

7

Why has the incidence of infectious disease declined over the last 70 years?

Better disease treatment

Vaccination

Health standards

8

What has the incidence of immune diseases rised in the last 70 years?

Diet

Hygiene

Effect on microbiota possibly

9

What does inflammation in IBD result due to?

Dysregulated host immune response to the gut microbiota

10

How is the gut bacterial diversity different for people with IBD?

Less diverse than people who do not have IBD

11

What does it mean that IBD typically manifests in a non-uniform manner?

Patients have regions of healthy tissue adjacent to inflammed regions

12

What is an example of a bacterium that is elevated in Crohn's disease?

Enterobacteriaceae

13

Why is it very difficult to entangle cause from effect?

Many features of IBD itself could affect the microbiota, such as antibiotic use, inflammation, diarrhoea (affects transit time), host diet and host genotype

14

What can reduced bacterial diversity and increase in Enterobacteriaceae occur due to?

Broad spectrum antibiotic use

Inflammation

15

What impact does antibiotics have on the gut microbiota?

Decreases diversity and increases Enterobacteriaceae

16

How does inflammation change the gut microbiota?

17

How does diarrhoea alter the gut microbiota?

Decreased transit time alters microbial composition

18

How does the hosts diet alter the gut microbiota?

Less fibre causes changes to microbiota composition

19

What is currently being research in terms of the contents of the gut microbiota?

Manipulating the microbioa to redress the dysbosis and relieve symptoms of IBD

20

How can the microbiota of the gut possible be manipulated to fix a reduction in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii numbers?

Provide specific prebiotics designed to boost numbers of F. Praesnitzii

Design F. Praesnitzii as a biotherapeutic agent

21

How can the microbiota of the gut possible be manipulated to fix an increase in Enterobacteriaceae numbers?

Reduce antibiotic use to prevent decline in commensals

22

What, and how, do the two main species of bacteria change in IBD?

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreases

Enterobacteriaceae increases

23

What can be changed in someones diet to increase bacterial diversity?

Increase fibre

24

What does the success of existing probiotics/prebiotics depend on?

Specific strain

25

What is a probiotic?

Live microorganism which, when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host (basically add live bacteria)

26

What is a prebiotic?

A substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit (basically food for resident bacteria)

27

What are the conclusions of most studies that look at the effectiveness of probiotics?

They are beneficial in treatment and prevention of GI diseases

28

What are the different mechanisms of action for probiotics?

29

Do probiotics become permanent residents in the gut?

No, but their products and actions can still be beneficial under certain circumstances

30

Why is the species and strain important when selecting probiotics?

Different species (even strains) have different effects

Individual response varies due to existing variation in microbiota