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The banned ANC called for 1989 to be a.......................

'Year of Mass Action'.


What happened in February 1985?

In February, after a highly publicized hunger strike, hundreds of political detainees were released


What happened in August 1985?

In August a broad alliance of anti-apartheid organizations formed the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM), with UDF supporters and COSATU as its core members.


What did the MDM launch?

The MDM launched a Defiance Campaign against the government.


What was the Defiance Campaign?

This was a national campaign that called for an end to segregation in hospitals, public transport and beaches, and widespread worker stay-aways to protest about the tricameral elections of September 1989.


How was the success of the Defiance Campaign evident?

The success of the campaign was evident when three million workers stayed away from work on election day.


Despite the harsh government reaction, the mood of defiance grew.

Elaborate on this statement.

People became bolder and ignored government banning orders, eviction notices and restrictions, and openly defied segregation laws.


How did the MDM respond to the banning of the ANC?

Although the ANC remained banned, the MDM ignored this by openly displaying its flag and distributing its literature. The MDM also organized huge freedom marches in major cities.


How did the government respond to marches?

Previously the government had met any such challenge with swift repression, but now it took little action against the marchers.


A march of about ______ people in central Cape Town was followed by similar marches throughout the country.

40 000


It was clear that civil protests had been ____ and that the government was no longer in control. By the end of 1989, the stage was set for major changes in South Africa.