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Flashcards in The Industrial Revolution Deck (94)
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61

How did Lister overcome his opposition?

By saying that his statistics spoke for themselves

62

Why was there opposition to antiseptics originally?

- People didn't fully understand the science
- Smelt funny and were irritant- surgeons argued if it made their hands sore it couldn't be helping the patient

63

How did not understanding science cause opposition against carbolic spray?

- News of Lister's discovery spread quicker than germ theory
- Took a long time for surgeons to accept that germs caused infections as they didn't want to believe they might have been responsible for infections that killed their patients

64

What happened to Apothecaries in the industrial period?

- Began to lose influence- medicine became more sophisticated
- Still relied on herbal remedies- chemical cures weren't discovered yet.
- Based on site at hospitals.

65

What funded new hospitals in the 18th century?

donations from wealthy people and members of the new middle class such as businessmen and lawyers

66

How did hospitals improve overall in the industrial revolution?

- They became places where the sick would be treated as opposed to being a place where they could rest
- Nightingale professionalised nursing and impacted the layout of hospitals

67

What caused Florence Nightingale to improve hospital conditions?

After she was shocked by the state of them during the Crimean War between 1853 and 1856

68

What are some examples of improvements by Florence Nightingale in hospitals?

1. Scrubbing brushes to get rid of dirt near patients
2. Clean bedding and ensuring good meals
3. 1860 - Nightingale School for Nurses
4. Pavilion style hospital

69

What was a pavilion style hospital?

A layout of a hospital where infectious patients would be kept away from other patients

70

What was the impact of Florence Nightingale?

- improved nursing
- applied pressure to standards before germ theory
- broke the mentality that nurses were uncaring and flirtatious
- positive effect on mortality rates

71

By what percent did mortality rates drop due to the influence of Florence Nightingale?

38% (from 40% to 2%)

72

What did the Government do concerning public health throughout the 18th century?

They remained largely inactive however they tackled the issue of gin consumption in 1750

73

What was the gin issue in 1750?

The poor were drinking themselves to death with gin

74

How did the government solve the gin issue in 1750?

By raising the price of gin

75

What did the gin crisis of 1750 foreshadow?

The future because it showed the ability of the attitudes of society to influence the government's work and it also showed that the government were unwilling to involve themselves unless they absolutely had to

76

Why did the Government eventually step in with the gin crisis of 1750?

the impact of the portrait Gin Lane forced the government to make changes

77

How many people died of cholera between 1831 and 1866?

over 100,000 people

78

Who did cholera affect the most?

the poorest people in the country - the biggest outbreaks were in slum dwellings, workhouses, prisons and asylums

79

When did cholera arrive in Britain?

1831

80

In what book did John Snow theorise about cholera in drinking water?

On the Mode of Communication of Cholera

81

How did John Snow link cholera to drinking water?

In 1854 he made a spot map linking 93 cholera deaths to a water pump in Soho
He removed the handle from the pump, preventing people using it
The outbreak went away
Later inspections discovered untreated sewage had been leaking into the pump

82

What was the General Board of Health's reaction to John Snow's work on cholera?

They insisted that miasma was the cause of cholera and stated that people still got cholera even if they lived far away from a pump

83

Why did the General Board of Health react to John Snow the way they did?

Because if they admitted that cholera was caused by infected water then they would have to take costly steps towards providing clean water

84

What eventually forced the government to take action against the sewage conditions?

the great stink in 1858

85

What effect did the industrial revolution have on towns?

They became overcrowded, full of slums and full of poor sanitation. There was dirty water supplied and no cleanliness

86

What were the main killer diseases during the industrial revolution?

Typhoid, smallpox, cholera and diptheria

87

What was the attitude of the government in the early 19th century?

Similar to the 1600s, they focussed on miasma and clearing up 'bad air'. They were very laissez-faire and there was a political belief that the government should have a hands off approach

88

What were the factors that influenced change throughout the 19th century?

- big outbreak of cholera in 1831
- 1842 report on how poor living conditions were
- 1854 link between cholera and water proved
- 1858 great stink took place
- 1961 germ theory

89

When was the first public health law and what was it?

1848
Gave town councils the option of volunteering to provide clean water to its inhabitants

90

What and when was the second public health law?

1875
Enforced councils to provide clean water, sewers, remove nuisances and clear slums