Flashcards in The Industrial Revolution Deck (94)
Who developed a tetanus and diphtheria vaccine and when?
Emil Von Behring in 1890
When was John Snow's work on Cholera?
When did Florence Nightingale begin improving hospitals?
When were the main nationwide smallpox epidemics?
1722, 1723, 1740-42
When was inoculation introduced?
Who was one of the most successful inoculators?
What did uneducated people say about Jenner's vaccination originally?
it would turn them into cows
How did Jenner make the link between smallpox and cowpox?
he noticed that the dairy maids he treated for cowpox never caught smallpox
How did Jenner experiment with his vaccination?
He infected James Phipps with cowpox and 6 weeks later tried to give him smallpox but James couldn't catch it. He tried this on other people to test his theory.
What did religious leaders say about Jenner's vaccination originally?
it was against God's will
What did inoculators think about Jenner's vaccination?
it would destroy their businesses
Why was the Government in favor of Jenner's vaccination?
it was cheaper and safer than inoculation - especially considering with inoculation people had to be quarantined afterwards
Why did the anti-Jenner propaganda fall away?
because of how many lives he saved
Who discovered that chloroform had a surgical use?
James Simpson, 1847
What was the surgical use of chloroform?
it had the capacity to knock people out for a duration of time
Why was the discovery of chloroform important for surgeries?
Before 1847, anaesthetics for surgeons had been painfully limited
Which early chemical was avoided in surgeries and wby?
Ether - because it was highly flammable
What techniques did surgeons use to put patients to sleep before chloroform?
opium, alcohol and sometimes hypnotism
What did Joseph Lister discover?
Infected wounds were essentially rotting flesh and so from 1865 onwards he began using carbolic acid in operations to prevent infections and clear germs from wounds
What was a long term effect of Lister's work?
antiseptic surgery which was widely supported by 1882 (this wasn't necessarily with carbolic spray but using an alternative - Lister stopped using it in 1890)
Define aseptic surgery
Making operating theatres clean from germs in the first place by doing things like steam cleaning surgical tools, wearing rubber gloves, wearing surgical masks etc
How did John Snow contribute to the chloroform discovery?
He developed the chloroform dispenser, meaning the dosage could be regulated in operations
Why was the chloroform dispenser important?
too much of the chemical slowed down the heart too quickly
Why did chloroform become widely popular in Britain?
Queen Victoria used it during the birth of her son in 1853
How did Lister discover that carbolic acid work?
He used it on a patient with a broken leg and the wound was not infected
What was the effect of Lister's operation death rate as a result of carbolic spray?
It went from 47% to 15%
Why was there opposition to anaesthetics?
- initial fear
- before the introduction of antiseptics they made surgery more dangerous
Why were the people initially scared of anaesthetics?
In 1848 Hannah Greener died after having chloroform in an operation - people saw it as unsafe
People thought you were more likely to die if you are unconscious as opposed to awake and screaming
How did anaesthetics originally make surgery more dangerous?
before antiseptics were introduced, deeper surgeries were being attempted in the same dirty conditions so infection and death rates increased
this was known was the "Black Period" for surgery