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History of Medicine (c1250 - present day) > The Industrial Revolution > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Industrial Revolution Deck (94)
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31

Who developed a tetanus and diphtheria vaccine and when?

Emil Von Behring in 1890

32

When was John Snow's work on Cholera?

1854

33

When did Florence Nightingale begin improving hospitals?

1853

34

When were the main nationwide smallpox epidemics?

1722, 1723, 1740-42

35

When was inoculation introduced?

1796

36

Who was one of the most successful inoculators?

Thomas Dimsdale

37

What did uneducated people say about Jenner's vaccination originally?

it would turn them into cows

38

How did Jenner make the link between smallpox and cowpox?

he noticed that the dairy maids he treated for cowpox never caught smallpox

39

How did Jenner experiment with his vaccination?

He infected James Phipps with cowpox and 6 weeks later tried to give him smallpox but James couldn't catch it. He tried this on other people to test his theory.

40

What did religious leaders say about Jenner's vaccination originally?

it was against God's will

41

What did inoculators think about Jenner's vaccination?

it would destroy their businesses

42

Why was the Government in favor of Jenner's vaccination?

it was cheaper and safer than inoculation - especially considering with inoculation people had to be quarantined afterwards

43

Why did the anti-Jenner propaganda fall away?

because of how many lives he saved

44

Who discovered that chloroform had a surgical use?

James Simpson, 1847

45

What was the surgical use of chloroform?

it had the capacity to knock people out for a duration of time

46

Why was the discovery of chloroform important for surgeries?

Before 1847, anaesthetics for surgeons had been painfully limited

47

Which early chemical was avoided in surgeries and wby?

Ether - because it was highly flammable

48

What techniques did surgeons use to put patients to sleep before chloroform?

opium, alcohol and sometimes hypnotism

49

What did Joseph Lister discover?

Infected wounds were essentially rotting flesh and so from 1865 onwards he began using carbolic acid in operations to prevent infections and clear germs from wounds

50

What was a long term effect of Lister's work?

antiseptic surgery which was widely supported by 1882 (this wasn't necessarily with carbolic spray but using an alternative - Lister stopped using it in 1890)

51

Define aseptic surgery

Making operating theatres clean from germs in the first place by doing things like steam cleaning surgical tools, wearing rubber gloves, wearing surgical masks etc

52

How did John Snow contribute to the chloroform discovery?

He developed the chloroform dispenser, meaning the dosage could be regulated in operations

53

Why was the chloroform dispenser important?

too much of the chemical slowed down the heart too quickly

54

Why did chloroform become widely popular in Britain?

Queen Victoria used it during the birth of her son in 1853

55

How did Lister discover that carbolic acid work?

He used it on a patient with a broken leg and the wound was not infected

56

What was the effect of Lister's operation death rate as a result of carbolic spray?

It went from 47% to 15%

57

Why was there opposition to anaesthetics?

- initial fear
- before the introduction of antiseptics they made surgery more dangerous
- religion

58

Why were the people initially scared of anaesthetics?

In 1848 Hannah Greener died after having chloroform in an operation - people saw it as unsafe
People thought you were more likely to die if you are unconscious as opposed to awake and screaming

59

How did anaesthetics originally make surgery more dangerous?

before antiseptics were introduced, deeper surgeries were being attempted in the same dirty conditions so infection and death rates increased
this was known was the "Black Period" for surgery

60

Why was there religious opposition to anaesthetics?

People believed that interfering with pain disobeyed God's plan - especially childbirth which was believed that it was supposed to be painful