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Flashcards in The Industrial Revolution Deck (94)
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1

What was the supernatural belief like in the 1700 - 1800s?

people used religious belief less to explain events even though religion was still very strong in people's lives

2

In the 1700s, what was the main theory of what caused disease?

Few people believed in the 4 humours however it hadn't been fully replaced yet but miasma was believed and so was the work of Thomas Sydenham

3

What was the theory of spontaneous generation?

"animalcules" were the product of decay and so if something was to be left to decay, these animalcules would spontaneously generate onto it

4

When was the enlightenment?

throughout the 1700s

5

What was the importance of the enlightenment?

it became fashionable to seek answers to questions about the world and rational explanation became the standard

6

What was the importance of the Scientific Revolution?

New scientific theories finally began to replace old ones

7

Why was the scientific revolution in the industrial period as opposed to the renaissance?

Although theories were discredited in the Renaissance, there were no new theories to replace them until the industrial period

8

What was the importance of the growth of towns and cities?

new cities and towns were not well planned meaning that diseases like TB and smallpox were big threats to the working class

9

Which theory of causing disease was brought forward from the Renaissance

Miasma (becoming less popular)
the links between seeds in the air and animalcules (becoming more popular)

10

What new theory on the cause of disease was developed in the early 18th century?

Spontaneous Generation as an alternative to the four humours

11

What was spontaneous generation helped by?

early microscopes that could identify 'animalcules' on decaying matter

12

What were the 4 conclusions of germ theory?

1. the air contains living microbes
2. microbes in the air cause decay
3. microbes are not evenly distributed in the air
4. microbes can be killed by heating them

13

What did John Tyndall discover?

that there were small organic particles in the air - he gave a speech in 1870 linking the works of Joseph Lister and Louis Pasteur

14

What did Robert Koch discover?

Specific germs that cause specific diseases

15

What did John Tyndall theorise in 1870?

that disease could be spread through dust particles

16

What did the Government ignore in 1884?

Koch's work in India about how Cholera was caused by a specific microbe

17

When was the tuberculosis germ discovered?

1882

18

When was the cholera germ discovered?

1883

19

When was the link between cholera and water proved?

1854 by John Snow and 1884 by Robert Koch

20

When was the meningitis germ discovered?

1884

21

When was the yersinia pestis germ discovered?

1894

22

What event in 1915 helped germ theory spread?

Dr Bastien, a well respected doctor who encouraged belief in spontaneous generation, died

23

When was the first vaccination?

1796 for smallpox

24

How did the government change in relation to prevention of disease in the 1700s?

they gradually became more involved

25

What cures were consistently being used in the industrial period?

herbal remedies because successful cures were not developed until the 20th century

26

When was the Royal Jennerian Society set up and what did it do?

1803 and it promoted and facilitated vaccinations

27

When was the smallpox vaccine made compulsory?

1852

28

When were public vaccinators appointed?

1871

29

When did the British government begin to enforce compulsory vaccinations?

1853

30

What vaccination did Pasteur discover and what was the importance of this?

A chicken cholera vaccination by producing a weakened strain of the germ
It led to applied science when it came to vaccinations