Flashcards in The Enlightenment Deck (26)
Why would Kings of Europe hate John Locke’s ideas?
They did not want to protect rights, and John Locke was urging people to overthrow them
How did the Scientific Revolution weaken the Catholic Church?
Some of the teachings of the Catholic Church began to be proven incorrect by science, and people began to question more and more of the teachings
Explain what the enclosure movement was.
Rich farmers bought up the common land, and fenced it off so smaller farmers were not able to use it
How did we gather information before the Scientific Revolution?
All knowledge came from the ancient Greeks and Romans or the Bible
List the 7 reasons why England was the first to industrialize.
Plenty of rivers and coal
Large amounts of natural resources like coal and cotton
England had lots of rivers
Large harbors already built
Stable economy and government
Already had a global trade network
Large urban population with no other options
What changes did Mary Wollstonecraft advocate for? To what extent has that change taken place?
The rights for women to own property, be educated, vote, and in general be treated as equals.
In most modern countries women do have all of those rights, but there are still areas that need improvement.
Describe what life was like before the Industrial Revolution? (Where did people work, how did we make our stuff, etc?)
Most people lived on small farms and grew crops to eat
Most work was done in the home or was done by hand by an artisan
What concepts were discovered during the Scientific Revolution?
The Earth rotates around the sun, Calculus, telescopes, etc.
What is a social contract?
The agreement that citizens would give up some rights and accept the government as legitimate in order for the government to maintain control
What major changes took place because of the Industrial Revolution?
Machines began doing more work for people instead of muscle power
People began to work outside of the home, and buy things that were mass produced in a factory
What is absolute rule?
A government where the ruler had total authority, and there were no limits on what they were allowed to do.
Explain what the crop rotation was.
Planting different crops each year to replenish soil, which grew more food per acre
How did the Catholic church respond to the Scientific Revolution ?
They threatened, tortured, or killed scientists who refused to take back their research.
What type of governing structure was used during the dark ages?
What new ideas were there about how governments should be run?
Citizens should vote on their leaders, 3 branches of government, citizens should have the right to a fair trial, free speech, religious freedoms, women should be treated as equals according to the law
How did we gather information AFTER the Scientific Revolution?
We tested our ideas, and came to conclusions about the world based on the research
During the dark ages, whose happiness was the most important? Afterwards?
Kings and Queens, afterwards it was the common people
What are the three Natural Rights? Explain each one
Life - Your right to be alive
Liberty - Your right to do whatever you want, as long as it doesn’t hurt others
Property - Your right to own and control things, and no one can take them from your without permission
What is an example of Capitalism in your regular life?
Examples: More people want to have organic food, so Kroger and Walmart are offering more options. More people would rather stream their entertainment, so cable companies and DVD sales are declining.
What was “Divine Right?”
Kings get to rule because “God said so”
What was the role of the Catholic Church?
The Catholic Church decided who got to be a king or queen.
They could keep being king as long as their people were Catholic, they paid the church . If a King didn’t do that, they would replace him
Describe what is meant by natural laws.
The idea that certain rights are given to us by nature/God, and they shouldn’t be ever taken away by a government
Explain what effect the Enclosure Movement and crop rotation had on the causes of industrial revolution.
Enclosure movement - Forced a lot the farmer to move to the cities, where they were the workforce for factories
Crop rotation - Even with fewer farmers, this allowed the remaining ones to produced enough food for everyone.
In your own words, describe what the Enlightenment was.
The Enlightenment was an explosion of ideas that focused on individual rights, better government, and science
According to John Locke, what is a government’s main concern?
If a government doesn’t protect natural rights, they should be overthrown