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Flashcards in The Diversity of Birds Deck (22)
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1

Class Aves

How many species of Bird are there?

Ever fluid, but around 10,000

Comprises some 300 billion birds falling
into 40 orders, 237 families & 2,278 genera

All avian orders are completed by the term
‘formes’ which means “taking the form of”

2

Order Passeriformes

"sparrow-like"

More than 50% of all bird species

known as perching birds and "songbirds"

includes

• swallows
• wagtails
• wrens
• robins
• thrushes
• warblers
• tits
• nuthatches
• shrikes
• crows
• starlings
• sparrows
• finches
• buntings

 

3

Order Struthioniformes

"Ostrich-like"

Ostriches, emus, rheas, cassowaries & kiwis

4

Order Pelecaniformes

Pelecans, gannets and cormorants

5

Order Ciconiiformes

"stork-like"

Herons, storks & ibises

6

Order Anseriformes

"goose-like"

Ducks, geese and swans

7

Order Falconiformes

"sickle-like"

Falcons, Hawks, Eagles and Vultures

8

Order Galliformes

"chicken-like"

includes chickens, turkeys, pheasants, grouses, and some others

9

Order Gruiformes

"crane-like"

Includes cranes, coots and rails

10

Order Charadriiformes

"plover-like"

Ostercatchers, plovers, auks, terns and gulls

11

Order Columbiformes

"pigeon-like"

Pigeons and doves

12

Orders Strigiformes

"screech owl-like"

Owls

13

Order Coraciiformes

"crow-like"

Bee-Eaters, Kingfishers, and Hornbills

14

Order Piciformes

"woodpecker-like"

Woodpeckers, Honeyguides and Toucans

15

Anatomy and physiology

Highly conserved

Skeletal elements
fused
• Long bones air-filled
• Medullary bone
• No teeth but gizzard
grinds food instead
• Large flight muscles
• Air sacs as well as
lungs
• Most body weight
near centre of
gravity
• Feathers
• Calcified eggshells

16

body mass reduction

driven by need for flight

• Lost teeth
• Lost structural bone
• Lost skeletal elements
• Not viviparous but lay eggs
• Only one functional ovary at any one
time
• Massive diurnal fluctuation in fat
reserves

17

Skeleton

18

Digestive System

19

Respiratory System

20

Reproductive System

21

Anatomy of the Egg

22