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Flashcards in The Development Gap Deck (24)
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1

WHT is development

Positive change
Standard of living improves
Economic growth , health , safety

Factors affecting;
Environmental , economic, social and political

2

What is the development gap

The differnence in standards of living between richest and poorest regions /countries

3

Measuring development?

HDI and GNI

4

What is HDI

Human development index
Links weath to education and health
Shows how far people are benefitting from a country's economic growth
- life expectancy, GNI per head and education level

Number form 0-1

5

GNI?

Gross national income
The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year
And money earns from adn paid to other country's
Expressed as per head of population
Measure of weath
Given as us $

BUT ONLY ECONOMIC INDICATOR

6

What is a topological Map

Drawn to show the size of each country in proportion to the number of people living on us$10.a day or less

7

Birth rate

Number of live babies born per 1000
Shows development AND women's rights

8

What are MEDCS and LEDCS

More economically developed country's and less economically developed countries

9

Problems with using JUST wreath for classifying countries

Can HIDE variation between regions in country and classes
Eg Russia - GNI is high, but there's a small number of VERY wealthy and then lots o f poor

10

Limitations of economic and social measures (for development)

Could be hard to collect of out of date
Data may be unreliable
They focus on certain aspects of development and may not take into account subsistence of informal economics
Government corruption --- data unreliable

11

Demographic transition model

Shows changes over time to the population of a country
Shows development
Population, birth rates and death rates

12

DTM - stage 1 and 2

Stage 1
-high birth and death rates, fluctuate due to disease and war etc
No contraption / Heath care , low and steady population size
Eg tribes

Stage 2
- death rate falls due to improved Heath care and diet
Birth rate stays the same
Increasing population size
Eg Afghanistan

13

Stage 3 and 4 of the DTM

Stage 3- birth rate drops as women have more equal place in society
More contraception
Death rate continues to decrease but slower
Economy changed to manufacturing - income increases
Eg Nigeria , India

Stage 4
Low ad fluctuating birth rate and death rate
High and steady population.

Eg uk , USA

14

Stage 5 - DTM

Elderly population
Slowly falling birth rate - falls below death rate
Death rate increase slightly because of aging population
Total pp=population started to decrease

Eg Italy, Germany

15

Population pyramids

Structure of a population
How people in differnent age groups are changing
Shows percentage of no, of males and females

Wide at bottom= high proportion of young

16

What is the dependency ratio ( population pyramids )

The proportion of people below and above working age
Add together numbers for both growips adn divide by working population

Lower number = greater number of people who wor and less dependant (more common in HICS)

17

Physical causes of uneven development

If landlocked and cut off form sea, cut off form seaborne trade
Climate related disease
Extreme temperature
Poor climate
Poor farming land
Few raw materials
Lack of adequate supplies of safe water

18

Historical causes of uneven development

Colonisation
- countries that where colonised are often at lower level, raw materials may have been taken

Conflict

19

Economic causes of uneven development

Poor trade links
Lots of debt
A economy based on primary products - don't mkae much profit, prices fluctuate

Means people Make little money, so government have less to spend on development

20

What things does uneven development lead to?

Heath inequality
Wealth unequality
International migration eg Middle East refugee crisis

21

How can we reduce the development gap

Tourism
Microfinance - small loans given to start up a business
Investment
Free trade + fair trade
Intermediate technology
Debt relief


22

Industrial development

A factory creates emolument for its workers and taxes for government
Money can be invested in roads , schools etc
Population becomes better educated and happier
Opputinities for new investments like community facilities and shops

23

Bilatial and multilateral aid

BI- ONE country to another

Multi- richer governments give money to an international organisation

24

Reducing the gap - tourism in Jamaica

Tourism - beautiful beaches, warm climate

Economy - in 2014, contributed to 24% of Jamaica GDP

Employment - 200,000 from tourism

Infrastructure - investment

Environment - conservation, ecotourism

But emissions, waste and footpath erosion