The developing Cold War: 1948 - 1961 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The developing Cold War: 1948 - 1961 Deck (33)
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1

How was Germany divided at the end of WW2?

Into four zones.
French, British, American and Russian.

2

What was the name given to the to the sum of all three capitalist zones?

Trizonia

3

When was trizonia created with the western zones of Germany?

1947

4

When did the Western zones of Germany introduce a new currency called the Deutschmark?

June 1947

5

What was the importance of the western zones of Germany introducing a new currency?

It made the West noticeably richer than the East. This also angered Stalin and East Germany.

6

How did Stalin respond in June 1948: to the new currency being introduced?

He blocked off West Berlin in an attempt to force the West out of the city.

7

How did the USA respond to Stalin's blockade of West Berlin?

Airlifted supplies into the city on a constant flight rotation for many months.

8

What was formed on the 23rd of May, three days after the end of the Blockade?

NATO.

9

What was the importance of the Blockade for relations between the USSR and the USA? (2)

It showed how 'cold' relations had got between the USA and the USSR.
It increased tension because it made the USSR look like the bad guys for causing the blockade

10

Which countries joined NATO? (1949)

Lots, including - USA, France, GB, Iceland, Canada

11

When did West Germany join NATO?

1955.

12

Which countries joined the Warsaw Pact ?(1955)

Poland, USSR, Hungary, Romania, East Germany, Czechoslovakia...

13

What was the purpose of NATO and the Warsaw Pact?

Defence against each other.

14

What had started the arms race back in 1945?

The USA's development and use of an atomic bomb on Japan.

15

How much more powerful was the hydrogen bomb the USA developed in 952 compared to the atomic bomb?

1000x

16

What did the USSR develop in 1953?

H-bomb.

17

What is an ICBM?

Inter-continental ballistic missile, A missile that can fly between continents.

18

When was the first American ICBM developed?

1957

19

What failed to be agreed at a summit meeting in July 1955?

Disarmament.

20

What was the secret speech?

A speech Khrushchev which announced peaceful coexistence and De-Stalinization

21

Why did peaceful coexistence not work out? (2)

It was a contradiction .
It was based on there being cooperation but at the same time there was no question that Khrushchev would do anything that would make the USSR look bad or weaker in comparison by the USSR.

22

Why were the people of Hungary unhappy in 1956? (4)

The brutal secret police.
Poor living conditions.
Their economy was being exploited by the USSR.
Food and raw materials were being taken by the USSR.

23

Who replaced Rakosi as leader of the country? (Hungary)

Nagy.

24

What did supporters of Nagy do when they saw Soviet tanks and soldiers?

Fought them, often with homemade bombs.

25

Why did the USA not want to get involved in the 1956 Hungarian Uprising? (3)

Fear of Nuclear war.
Hungary was in the Soviet 'sphere' of influence.
The Americans were more occupied with a crisis in Egypt over ownership of the Suez Canal.

26

What problem was occuring in 1958 Berlin?

A refugee crisis.

27

What was the standard of living like in East Germany?

Poor.

28

Why did skilled workers particularly want to leave East Germany?

For better pay and greater freedoms.

29

Why were older and more vulnerable people happy to stay in East Germany?

They were supported by the state.
They knew they would always have an apartment, etc.

30

What was Khrushchev's ultimatum over the city of Berlin , issued on the 27th November 1958?

That the allies should leave the city to make it a neutral /free zone.