The Changing UK Economy Flashcards Preview

GCSE Geography- Human > The Changing UK Economy > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Changing UK Economy Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...

How has the uk economy changed?

Before 1800 - most people worked in primary sector

Industrial revolution - changed everything , manufacturing sector

Last few decades - tertiary

Recently - quaternary


Why has UK economy change d?

Ddindustrialisation and the decline of traditional industries

- decline of manufacturing sector , machines and each replaced people, other countries can produce cheaper goods, lack of intest , high labour costs and outdated machines

Globalisation - spread of ideas

Government polices - investing in infrastructure and technology


Science parks

Group of scientific and technical knowledge based businesses located on a single site
Over 100 in U.K.
Around 75,000 work in them in UK


Example of science park

University of Southampton science park

Opened in 1986, 100 small science and innovated businesses
E.g. Photon star - lighting projects and fibercore

Excellent transport scheme, source of graduate employees from uni, facilities, attractive areas, meeting rooms etc


Business parks

An area of land occupied by cluster of businesses

Edge of towns because
Access motorways and less congestion
More available - can extend


Example of business park?

COBALT in Newcastle upon Tyne

Uks biggest
Retail outlets and opposite recreation centr
Close to main a1 road

IBM Santander


Impacts of industry on physical environment

Can look dull and uninteresting

Air and water pollution- degrade soil

Waste products - taken to landfill and when in ground pollute air water and soil

Transport of materials by road - pollution


How can industrial developments be more sustainable

TECHNOLOGY- reduce harmful emissions

DESULPHURISATION - can remove harmful gases from power station chimneys

Heavy fires imposed when an industrial pollution incident occurs

Stricter environmental targets


Environmental impacts of industry example

TORR QUARRY in Somerset

Try's to be environmentally friendly in following ways:

Wildlife lakes- characteristic limestone features to look more natural- 200 acres already landscapes- monitoring of noise, dust and water quality, rail transport


Population growth - south Cambridgeshire

150,000 and increasing
Gonna reach 182 by 2031

Social effects - 81% car ownership , high house cost, services oversubscribed, development of edges of town

ECONOMIC - high petrol prices, reduction in agricultural employment as farmers sell land for housing development


Population decline - the outer hebride

Over decline since 1901- more than 50%

Social - school closures, more old people

Economic - farming - most Crofts( sheep breeding on small farms) can only provide work for 2 days a week

Tourism - 27% increase in visitors from 2007-2014

Fishing - 2013, dew boats fishing whereas in 1948 - 900!


Road improvements

100 new road schemes by 2020

1300 new lane miles added to motor ways

Extra lanes and improving links between London and north


South west super highway

3km tunnel beneath stone hendge

A303 - single carriage way A will be made ALL dual carriage
Main routeto South west


Londons cross rail

New railway across the capital linking reading and Heathrow to shin field and abbeywood

32km of new tunnels under London , cost 14-18 billion

Wil improve journey times across London

Extra 1.5 million people within 45 minutes commuting distance of London key business district

200 million pa to use


Liverpool 2

( around 32 million passengers travel through U.K. Ports and they employ 120,000)

New container terminal at Liverpool port and will be deep - water quay on over meay

Will more than double ports capacity to over 1,5 million containers pa

Create thousands of jobs, reduce freight traffic



Airport sector accounts for 3.6% of uks GDP

Employs over 300,000

750,000 flights deport from YK annually



New runway 18,6 nil

Increasing length of existing one - 13.5 BIL

Ew runway and Gatwick( £9.3Bil)


The north south divide - why?

London and south east developed rapidly since 1970s due to fast growing service sector

North - was growth until after industrial devolution where industries declined


How to reduce north south divide ?

Northern powerhouse
Attracting investment to north and improving transport links there

Enterprise zones - 55 crates
Encourage the establishment of new businesses and new jobs in areas where there are no preezksting

Local enterprise partnerships
Voluntary poatnerships
Encourage companies to invest in them

Devolving more powers