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What is the buyer process?

the stages that consumers go through when deciding to purchase and consume a product


Will the buyer process be different for a consumer wanting to buy toilet paper vs. a car?



What are the steps/stages of the buyer process (in chronological order)?

1. Need recognition
2. Information search
3. Evaluation of Alternatives
4. Purchase
5. Reaction


In need recognition the consumer ______ that he or she has a _____ to be filled

recognizes, need


In information research the consumer _____ for ______ regarding the options for purchase or consumption.

searches, information


What does the consumer do during the evaluation of alternatives stage of the buying process?

The consumer looks at the different viable options and weighs the upsides and downsides of each;


During the purchasing stage, the consumer decides to purchase, including ____ and ___ to purchase.

where, how


What is an another name for the reaction stage/step?

post-purchase behavior


During post-purchase behavior, the consumer has _____ the product and is either ______ or ________.

consumed, pleased, displeased


What is consumption?

- using goods and services to fulfill needs.


Consumption is either actual ______ consumption, such as consuming a hamburger, or it is consuming a ______, such as getting teeth cleaned at the dentist.

physical, service


Consumption is using goods or services to fulfill ______.



The buyer process is structured in terms of...



During the evaluation stage the consumer --_______ and _______ the different available options that he or she has found

compares, contrasts


a _____ is a gap between his or her current state and his or her desired state.



What is a need?

a gap between his or her current state and his or her desired state


a need is a gap between his or her _____ state and his or her _______ state

current, desired


Marketing can serve as an external cue of a _______, either by pointing out a new desired state for a consumer or by showing how the consumer's current state is insufficient.



How can marketing make the consumer recognize a need ?

most of us have seen a television or magazine ad for a cool new product with “amazing features” or a trendy fashion item that we didn’t need at all before seeing the advertisement. After seeing the ad, we had a new desired state: to own that product and experience the benefits from it.


Marketers make the consumer recognize a need by acknowledging a current ______ (being safe at home) and explaining how a product or service would _____ meet that need (a new alarm system that would signal any intruders approaching).

need, better


When a consumer starts searching for information, often the first place he or she looks is to his or her own experience or memory. This is called an ______ ______

internal search


The brands that a consumer first recalls from memory reflect his or her _____ ___ _____ _______.

top of mind awareness


After recalling brands from memory, a consumer disregards any options that would be obviously unsuitable. All of the options that are left become part of the _____ ___

consideration set


What is the consideration set?

choices that a consumer considers and evaluates for consumption.


Information about a brand that a consumer recalls from memory relates to the concept of ______ ________.

brand awareness

If a company has developed brand awareness for a product — particularly brand recall — then it is more likely the consumer will remember it and include it in his or her consideration set for future purchase.


What is search engine optimization?

It is a good idea to make sure that the product or company marketing content appears in search results when consumers search for product information using search engines such as Google. Marketers accomplish this through SEO for the company website.


______ ______ are the product attributes that are important to consumers

evaluative criteria


What are two examples of evaluative criteria?

Price and color


At the purchase point in the buyer behavior process, the consumer makes the purchase decision of which product to purchase and also chooses ____, _____, and ___ to purchase the product.

where, when, how


One of the goals of marketing in the purchase stage is to _____ consumers in making the purchase decision so that they can actually follow through on a purchase.