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Flashcards in Test One Deck (85)
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Developed by Alphonse Bertillon in the late 19th century, the study and comparison of body measurements as a means of criminal identification.



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A colloquial term used in reference to British police constables; derived by the public from the first name of Sir Robert Peel, whose efforts led to the creation of the first metropolitan police force in London.


Bow Street Runners

Established by Henry Feildings in 1748, a group of volunteer, non-uniformed home owners who helped catch thieves in London by rushing to crime scenes and beginning investigations, thus acting as the first modern detective force. By 1785, some were paid government detectives.



The study and comparison of fingerprints as a means of criminal identification; first used systematically for that purpose in England in 1900, but a means of identification since the first century.


Deoxyibonucleic acid (DNA)

A nucleic acid consisting of the molecules that carry the body's genetic material and establish each person as a separate and distinct.


Drug Enforcement Administration

Created in 1973, this federal agency is responsible for enforcing laws on illicit drugs and fighting international drug traffic; also trains state and local police in investigative work regarding illegal drugs, surveillance, and use of informants.


Enderby Cases

Two rape/murder cases in England that involved the first use of DNA typing, in 1987, in a criminal case. DNA samples recovered from both victims led to the release of an innocent man and the subsequent arrest and conviction of the killer.


Forensic Sciences

The examination, evaluation, and explanation of physical evidence in terms of law.



An official who gathers, documents, and evaluates evidence and information in the investigation of a crime.


Metropolitan Police Act (1829)

An act of Parliament that created the London Metropolitan Police, the first centralized, professional police force in Britain, which soon became the international model of professional policing.


Mulberry Street Morning Parade

Instituted by Chief Detective Thomas Byrnes in New York City in the late 1800s, an innovative approach to criminal identification in which all new arrestees were marched each morning before detectives so that the detectives could make notes and later recognize the criminals.


National Crime Information Center (NCIC)

The FBI's online system of extensive databases on criminals and crime; available to federal, state, and local agencies.


palo verde seedpod case

A 1992 murder case in Phoenix, Arizona in which DNA analysis of plant evidence was used for the first time in criminal proceedings to help secure a conviction.


"Police Spies"

In early nineteenth-century England, a derogatory term used in reference to plainclothes detectives; coined by persons who feared that the use of such officers would reduce civil liberties.


Rogues' Gallery

Instituted by the New York City Police Department in 1857, a display in which photographs of known offenders were arranged by criminal specialty and height for detectives to study so that they might recognize criminals on the street.


Scotland Yard

The original headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police, so-called because the building formerly housed Scottish royalty. Since 1890, the headquarters have been located elsewhere, but have been still known as the New Scotland Yard.


West Case

A 1903 incident in which two criminals with the same name, identical appearances, and nearly identical measurements were distinguished only by fingerprints, thus significantly advancing the use of fingerprints for identification in the U.S.



A sworn, written statement of the information known to an officer that serves as the basis for the issuance of an arrest warrant or a search warrant.



The process of taking a person into legal custody to answer a criminal charge.


Arrest Warrant

A judicial order commanding that a particular person be arrested and brought before a court to answer a criminal charge.



The act of formally asserting that a particular person is to be prosecuted for a crime.



A temporary and limited interference with a person's freedom for investigative purposes. Also called investigative detention, street stop, and field investigation.


Due Process



Due Process Clause

The title of clauses appearing in both the 5th and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the U.S.


Exigent Circumstances

An exception to the requirement that law enforcement officers have a search warrant; occurs when there is a compelling need for official action and there is no time to get a warrant.



The process of looking for evidence of a crime.


Search and Seizure

The process of looking for evidence of a crime and taking that evidence into custody of a law enforcement agency.


Search Warrant

Written authorization by a judge allowing law enforcement officers to look for specified items of evidence of a crime in a specified place.


Stop and Frisk

A limited pat down of the outer clothing of a person encountered by a law enforcement officer when the person is acting suspiciously, and the officer, concerned about safety, seeks to determine if the person has a weapon.