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Flashcards in TEST #5 Deck (50)
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1

A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.

Race.

2

A collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
1. Unique cultural traits,
2. A sense of community
3. A feeling of ethnocentrism.
4. Ascribed membership from birth
5. Territoriality.

Ethnic group.

3

A racial or ethnic group that has the greatest power and resources in a society.

Dominant group.

4

A group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment and discrimination by the dominant group.

Subordinate group.

5

A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of specific racial, ethnic, or other groups.

Prejudice.

6

Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.

Stereotypes.

7

A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group.

Racism.

8

____ racism is more blatant and may take the form of public statements about the "inferiority" of members of a racial or ethnic group.

Overt.

9

____ racism are often hidden from sight and more difficult to recognize.

Subtle.

10

The ______-_____ hypothesis states that people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others.

Frustration-Aggression.

11

A person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.

Scapegoat.

12

________ personality, which is characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking.

Authoritarian

13

Involves actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group.

Discrimination.

14

The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.

Genocide.

15

Consists of one-on one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.

Individual discrimination.

16

Consists of the day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful effect on members of subordinate groups.

Institutional discrimination.

17

In the ______ hypothesis, symbolic interactionists point out that contact between people from divergent groups should lead to favorable attitudes and behavior when certain factors are present. Members of each group must:
1. Have equal status
2. Pursue the same goals,
3. Cooperate with one another to achieve their goals.
4. Receive positive feedback when they interact with one another in positive nondiscriminatory ways.

Contact.

18

A process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture.

Assimilation.

19

Occurs when members of an ethnic group adopt dominant-group traits, such as language, dress, values, religion and food preferences.

Cultural assimilation or acculturation.

20

Occurs when members of a subordinate racial or ethnic groups gain acceptance in everyday social interaction with members of the dominant group.

Structural assimilation or integration.

21

Occurs when members of one group marry those of other social or ethnic groups.

Biological assimilation.

22

Involves a change in racial or ethnic self-identification on the part of an individual.

Psychological assimilation.

23

The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.

Ethnic pluralism.

24

The spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender or religion.

Segregation.

25

Refers to laws that systematically enforced the physical and social separation of African Americans in all areas of public life.

De jure segregation.

26

Racial separation and inequality enforced by custom-- is more difficult to document than de jure segregation.

De facto segregation.

27

Occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group.

International colonialism.

28

Refers to the division of the economy into two areas of employment, a primary sector or upper tier, composed of higher-paid (usually dominant-group) workers in more secure jobs, and secondary sector or lower tier, composed of lower-paid (often subordinate group) workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions.

Split labor market.

29

Refers to the interactive effect of racism and sexism on the exploitation of women of color.

Gendered racism.

30

States that actions of the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations in the United States.

Theory of racial formation.