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Flashcards in TEST #4 Deck (25)
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1

Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.

Deviance.

2

Behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions.

Crime

3

Refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people.

Juvenile Delinquency

4

Refers to the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules and laws and to discourage deviance.

Social Control

5

The systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons.

Criminology

6

According to ________ people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.

Strain Theory

7

Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.

Illegitimate opportunity structures.

8

States that people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.

Differential association theory.

9

Holds that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to a society are weakened or broken.

Social bond theory.

10

States that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they in turn, come to accept the label placed upon them and begin to act accordingly.

Labeling theory.

11

Refers to the initial act of rule breaking.

Primary deviance.

12

Occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.

Secondary deviance.

13

Occurs when a person who has been labeled deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.

Tertiary deviance.

14

A serious crime such as rape, homicide, or aggravated assault, for which punishment ranges from more than a year's imprisonment to death.

Felony

15

A minor crime that is typically punished by less than one year in jail.

Misdemeanor

16

Consists of actions—murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault—involving force or the threat of force against others.

Violent crime

17

Include burglary (breaking into private property to commit a serious crime) motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft (theft of property worth $50 or more), and arson.

Property Crimes

18

Involve a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults.

Victimless crimes.

19

Comprises of illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs.

Occupational (white-collar) crime.

20

Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support.

Corporate crime.

21

A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit.

Organized crime.

22

Refers to illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it.

Political crime

23

The calculated, unlawful use of physical force of threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective.

Terrorism

24

The local, state and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals.

Criminal justice system.

25

Any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed.

Punishment.