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Flashcards in TEST #3 Deck (69)
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1

The process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.

Social interaction.

2

The complex framework of societal institutions (such as the economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people's behavior.

Social structure.

3

The state of being part insider and part outsider in the social structure.

Social marginality.

4

Any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance.

Stigma.

5

A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.

Status.

6

Comprises all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time.

Status set.

7

A social position conferred at birth or received involuntary later in life, based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender.

Ascribed status.

8

A social position a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.

Achieved status.

9

The most important status a person occupies.

Master status.

10

Are material signs that inform others of a person's specific status.

Status symbols.

11

A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.

Role.

12

A group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.

Role expectation.

13

How a person actually plays the role.

Role performance.

14

Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a persons occupies.

Role strain.

15

Occurs when people consciously foster the impression of a lack of commitment or attachment to a particular role and merely go through the motions of role performance.

Role distancing.

16

Occurs when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.

Role exit.

17

Consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence.

Social group.

18

A small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.

Primary group.

19

A larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.

Secondary group.

20

Refers to a group's ability to maintain itself in the face of obstacles. Social solidarity exists when social bonds, attractions, or other forces hold members of a group in interaction over a period of time.

Social solidarity.

21

A series of social relationships that links an individual to others.

Social network.

22

A highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.

Formal organization.

23

A set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.

Social institution

24

A classification scheme containing two or more mutually exclusive categories that are used to compare different kinds of behavior or types of societies.

Typology.

25

Refers to how the various tasks of a society are divided up and performed.

Division of labor.

26

Refers to the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.

Mechanical solidarity.

27

Refers to the social cohesion found in industrial (and perhaps postindustrial) societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.

Organic solidarity.

28

Traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability.

Gemeinschaft.

29

A large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values.

Gesellschaft.

30

Based on technology that mechanizes production.

Industrial societies.