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Intro To Sociology > Test #2 Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test #2 Review Deck (30)
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1

Deviance

An action or behavior that violates social norms

2

in group

a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member

3

Primary group

a small social group (small-scale society) whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships

4

master status

 the social position that is the primary identifying characteristic of an individual

5

Ethnomethodology

a perspective within sociology which focuses on the way people make sense of their everyday world. People are seen as rational actors, but employ practical reasoning rather than formal logic to make sense of and function in society.

6

group think

 desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome

7

secondary group

large groupswhose relationships are impersonal and goal oriented

8

conformity

a change in behavior or belief toward a group standard as a result of the group's influence on an individual

9

Status

describes the position a person occupies in a particular setting

10

labeling theory

being labeled as a "deviant" leads a person to engage in deviant behavior

11

Role

the behaviour expected of an individual who occupies a given social position or status

12

Internal social control

Internal means of control, such as an individual's own sense of right and wrong, decrease the likelihood that one will deviate from social norms

13

What is frontstage?  Who's theory is this?

Goffman - The actor is "on stage" and must play his role.

14

Ascribed status

The social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life

15

something with a C lol

lolol

16

dimensions of mcdonaldization - who

Ritzer. One of the fundamental aspects of McDonaldization is that almost any task can (and should) be rationalized.  The process of McDonaldization takes a task and breaks it down into smaller tasks.  This is repeated until all tasks have been broken down to the smallest possible level. The resulting tasks are then rationalized to find the single most efficient method for completing each task. All other methods are then deemed inefficient and discarded.

17

Achieved status (and who)

Ralph Linton. A social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen

18

role conflict

A situation in which a person is expected to play two incompatible roles. For example, a boss will suffer role conflict if forced to fire an employee who is also a close friend

19

social interaction

a dynamic sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to actions by theirinteraction partner(s)

20

Dramaturgical analysis (and who)

Goffman.  Front stage/Back stage concept.  Life is a stage.

21

authoritarian leaders

Leadership that focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision-making, and demands strict compliance from subordinates

22

Rationality

the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with rational, calculated ones

23

What is impression management

People attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or even

24

expressive leadership

Group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being

25

Role expectation

the socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role

26

Status symbols

in a commercial society, having money or wealth and things that can be bought by wealth, such as cars, houses, or fine clothing, are considered status symbols. In a society that values honor or bravery, a battle scar would be more of a status symbol. Among intellectuals being able to think in an intelligent and educated way is an important status symbol regardless of material possessions

27

retreatism

rejecting both the goals and the means. For example, one might just drop out of society, giving up on everything

28

stigma

Goffman. an attribute, behavior, or reputation which is socially discrediting in a particular way

29

Out group

a social group with which an individual does not identify

30

What is backstage?  Who's theory is this?

Erving Goffman - similar to backstage in theatre.  Actor can relax, be himself.