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Who were the two-spirited of the Native Americans?

  1. A man that dressed like a woman and did women's work.
  2. Were not necessarily homosexual; some married women.
  3. Did not modify genitalia.
  4. It was believed that they embodied two spirits, a male, and a female.


Where are the Sambia from?


Papua New Guinea



_______ ________ are the anticipated cultural roles of the individual sexes.

Gender Roles


The characteristics associated with being a woman or man in a particular culture is central to _________________.

the practice of anthropology


What is intersectionality?

The intersection of sexuality and power.

When cultural institutions regulate and control our sexuality, sometimes in ways in which were are not aware, and sometimes in ways that we challenge


Who is Jared Diamond?

Wrote "The Animal with the Weirdest Sex Life".

Suggested that human sexuality is completely abnormal by the standards of the worlds other animal populations.


What is the scientific study of sexuality called?



Historian that argues heterosexuality as practiced and understood in contemporary US culture is a fairly recent invention.

Jonathan Katz


Who are the hijras?

Religious followers of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Bahuchara Mata. Often describe as transgender. Normally born as a man. Not characterized as neither man or woman by Indian population.


__________ is the process through which a sense of gender becomes normative and seems natural.



Why was Margaret Meade's work on sexuality so important?

It contributed to a greater understanding of human sexuality because it challenged the assumptions that US attitudes about sexuality were universal traits which were a part of human nature.


Described enculturation of gender roles in America.

  1. Giving children gendered names.
  2. Dressing boys and girls differently.
  3. Encouraged to play different sports


In what ways do cultural and governmental institutions attempt to regulate and control sexuality (intersection)?

  1. defining the age of consent
  2.  how marriage and divorce can be obtained
  3. reproductive rights such as abortion


Who is the anthropologist that studied women who engage in “Mati Work” in Suriname?

Gloria Wekker


What did Serena Nanda study?

Hijras in India


What is hegemonic masculinity?

  1. A particular set of behaviors, attitudes, and traits (physical, psychological emotional) held up as a standard for men.
  2. An ideal of masculinity, requiring all men to position themselves within it.
  3. Legitimated the global subordination of women to men.
  4. Most honored way of being a man



What are the "manly hearted women"?

  1. Bold courageous, or masculine woman
  2. can urinate in public
  3. have younger submissive husbands
  4. have magical powers


Define “Masu Harka”.

“People who do the deed”

Divided into two groups:

  1. Civilians (Masculine)
  2. Yan daudu (Feminine)


What is gender performance?

The way gender identity is expressed through action.


What are gender stereotypes?

A preconceived notion about the attributes of, differences between, and proper roles for men and women in a culture.


Who wrote the books: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female?

Alfred Kinsey

(interviewed thousands of Americans about their sexual experiences)


What was the Supreme Court case that defined same-sex marriage as a fundamental right guaranteed under the US Constitution?

Obergfell vs Hodges


What is the French slang word for Native American two-spirited?



What are some things that are expressed in American women's gender performances?

  1. Wearing nice clothes and jewelry.
  2. Not showing too much assertive or competitiveness in the workplace which can be considered unfeminine.



Define gender studies.

Research into masculinity and femininity, complex and historically and culturally constructed categories.

Research into understanding who we are as men and women.