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What are the two key perspectives of sexuality defined by Ken Guest?

  1. A Complex range of desires, beliefs, and behaviors that are related to erotic physical contact, intimacy, and pleasure.
  2. The cultural arena within which people debate ideas of what kinds of physical desire and behaviors are morally right, appropriate, and "natural" and use those ideas to create unequal access to status and power.



Why was art important in the social activism associated with “The Mothers of the Disappeared?”

•The “arpillera” images played an expressive role giving voice to the mothers’ grief while at the same time brought international attention to the human rights abuses in Chile

•The Catholic Church helped the women get these arpilleras out of the country to exhibitions and sale venues making the international community aware of the situation in Chile


Over a lifetime, _______ becomes a powerful and mostly invisible, framework that shapes the way we see ourselves and others.



Define Mati work

Women who form intimate spiritual, emotional, and sexual relationships with other women but maintain a “visiting” relationship with men for economic purposes and for the purposes of having children.

-Mati regard sexuality as a flexible behavior rather than a fixed identity.


__________ is a gender identity or performance that does not fit with cultural norms related to one's assigned sex at birth.



Define "machista"

The “machista” is considered a manly man.

As a result, Nicaraguan men may engage in sexual relations with heterosexual and homosexual men and women


Gender roles become a ________ __________ cultural norm.

self reinforcing


In general people see ________ before sexuality.



Define Sex from an anthropological view.

Observable physical differences between male and female human beings, especially biological differences related to human reproduction.


The preferred term for individuals of an alternate gender in Native American culture is ____________.

Two Spirit


Hegemonic masculinity does not refer to some timeless essence of manhood but is rather a social construction therefor :

  1. ____________
  2. ____________
  3. _____________

  1. It can differ from one society to another
  2. It can change over time within any one society
  3. It can and usually does co-exist and even compete with other non-hegemonic masculinities.


What was the name of the Native American that was two-spirited?

Crow Otsikyap Dapes



He was also a skilled artist and medicine person. Resisted efforts from others to abandon his role as two-spirited.


What were the Victorian ideals of sexuality?

  1. Having sex for fun for the Victorians was considered out of keeping with Christian teachings.
  2. Masturbation was considered a form of self-abuse and was condemned because it was not for procreation
  3. idealized procreation


What group of people did Rudolf Gaudio study?

“Masu Harka”


We cannot deny that sexuality has biological components, but anthropologists suggest that _______________have a strong impact on sexual behavior

cultural norms and values




Attitudes with regards to sexual behavior are usually based on our _________ values.

cultural (ethnocentric)


_________is a strong, exaggerated performance of masculinity



What is ritualized homosexuality?

Coined by Gilbert Herdt to describe a tribe's sexuality in in Papua New Guinea that regard male-female sex as unpleasant, although necessary for reproduction

These tribes demonstrate the extent to which culture can influence basic biological forces, such as sexual urges



Who was Alfred Kinsey?

Sexologist: inventor of heterosexuality

Believed erotic feelings for the opposite sex were not abnormal, but rather a normal reaction found in a majority of the human population.

Discovered that sexual tendencies of an individual could shift over a lifetime encompassing a wide range of sexual activity and interest.


_________ differences between men and women have become associated with behavior differences.



The ethnography "Dude, You're a Fag" was written by ___________. What did it portray?

CJ Pascoe. It was about masculinity in US high schools. How boys enforced the boundaries of masculinity through abuse or fear. Anti-gay discourse


In modern American culture, it is often believed that gender ideologies are supported by ________.



Define intersexual

An individual who is born with a combination of male and female genitalia, gonads, and/or chromosomes.

AKA hermaphrodite


What does Emily Martin's analysis of the "fairy tale" of the egg and the sperm, as presented in US textbooks, focus on?

A. Scientific language of biology promotes gendered stereotypes of male and female behavior

B. "female" eggs aggressively pursue more passive sperm until conception.

C. stereotypes of male and female behavior are portrayed as cultural constructions.


C. stereotypes of male and female behavior are portrayed as cultural constructions. (Martin's analysis)


Sociologist that explored the impact of the intersection of race and sexuality on the identities, relationships, and families of black gay women in the US.

Mignon Moore

(Invisible Families)


What are the 3 primary factors in determining biological sex?

  1.  Genitalia
  2.  Gonads (testes or ovaries)
  3.  Chromosome patterns (women XX, Men XY)


What is cultural construction of gender?

The ways humans learn to behave as a man woman and to recognize behaviors as masculine or feminine within their cultural context.


Describe "Man the hunter. Woman the Gatherer".

A misunderstanding of human evolution and subsistence patterns.

Origins and "naturalness" of gender relations are flawed according to the anthropological record. Following male or female roles are not in the genetics but taught and cultural.

Men and woman both played a passive and aggressive role in ancient times.

It is an attempt to make an ideology appear to be rooted in biology.


Where is Surname?