According to the book, what two "fairytales" invoke gender stereotypes and gender stratification.
- The Egg and the Sperm
- Man the Hunter, Woman the Gatherer
Anthropologists consider the ways in which ________ is constructed as a control element in every aspect of human culture, including sexuality, health, family, religion, economics, politics, sports, and individual identity formation.
In ways did Diamond identify human sexuality is different from other animals.
- Most other mammals live individually not in pairs and meet only to have sex.
- Humans have private sex
- Most mammals only have sex when the female ovulates.
Who wrote, "Manhood in the Making" and what was it about.
David Gilmore. The book concluded that masculinity across culture is a social project and not a natural "fact". Gilmore suggested "manhood" is not distancing form womanhood but a "revolt against boyishness" in which a male-bodied person must prove he is a man.
Where is Nigeria?
Are men and women born or made?
High testosterone levels often discussed as a source for abusive sexual behavior in men can actually be found in both men and women. True Or False
Who is Anne Faust-Sterling?
The biologist that proposed a theory that sheds light on the issue of fluidity versus rigidity in conceptualizing categories of biological sex and how they relate to gender identity. Wrote article "The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough"
What is unique about the women’s role in creating awareness of Pinochet’s abuses and eventually bringing his dictatorship to an end?
- That it was latin women. (They were not submissive and stood up)
- The government would not dare harm a "mother" or there would be repercussions.
What are the discrepancies in the Man as Hunter, Woman as Gatherer theory?
- In general, it holds the role of the hunter as being superior to gatherer.
- Majority of calories come from gathered food, sometimes as much as 80%
What did anthropologist Landers and Fine study?
Youth sports, especially co-ed T-ball. Masculinity was promoted. Girls and "weaker" or less talented boys were not paid attention to.
____________ ____________ develops out of stereotypes and ideologies, not biology.
Are there more than two sexes?
Some cultures do NOT have only 2 sexes.
There are more 2 kinds of bodies, more than 2 sexual preferences, more than two gender identities and they can be stacked in multiple ways, producing additional gender categories.
Define sexual dimorphism
Phenotypic differences between males and females of the same species.
Physical difference in male and females: height, strength, breast size, life expectancy...
What was the "Mother's of the Disappeared"?
El Salvador (Chile) in a civil war. Government tortured and killed anyone who expressed opposition against govt.
Group of mothers formed CO-MADRES. It was one of the first groups to challenge the govt about the disappearance of family members.
Women sold "arpilleras" or tapestries depicting plans or what was going on the country to find financial backers.
______ is composed of the expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes.
Who is Emily Martin?
Egg and Sperm Fairytale:
Egg and Sperm are equal - rather than displaying active or passive roles, the egg and the sperm appear to be mutually active partners in an egalitarian relationship.
What is the name of the anthropologist that revisited Malinowski's study of people on the Trobriand Islands and noticed that the women also had an important role in the society?
Nature creates _______ not rigid categories of gender.
Who is Margaret Meade?
Feminist anthropologist that challenged cultural assumptions about human sexuality and gender roles.
A spectrum of human sexuality with exclusively heterosexual behavior on one end and exclusively homosexual behavior on the other end is known as the _____ ______.
What are the 6 components of sex/gender?
Why do anthropologist study sexuality?
As a means of understanding the diverse expressions of sexuality worldwide.
What is gender ideology?
A set of cultural ideas, usually stereotypical, about the essential character of different genders that functions to promote and justify gender stratification.
What is biopower?
The discipline of the body through control of biological sex characteristics to meet a cultural need for clear distinctions between the sexes.
"Changing the body to meet cultural standards"
What was Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.
A group possibly inspired by the Chilean “Mothers of the Disappeared”
In Argentina, the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo held weekly silent marches protesting government atrocities, wearing white handkerchiefs as head scarves with the names of their “disappeared” children embroidered on them
•The white scarf continues to be used as a symbol of resistance and solidarity in Latin America and I personally saw them being worn by women activists protesting the dictatorship in Brazil during the 1980s.
_________ refers to erotic desires and sexual practices as well as sexual orientation.
_________ ___________ is the unequal distrubution of power and access to a group's resources, opportunities, rights, and privileges based on gender.
Under the rules of machismo (a form of gender performance), the machista is considered a:
A. manly man
B. gay man
C. sex worker
D. weak man
A. Manly Man
Who is Matthew Gutmann?
Studied machismo in Mexico. Found out that men displayed "manliness" outside of the home but have a more gentle side (especially to their children and family) inside the home.