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Flashcards in TEST #2 Deck (60)
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1

The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person  and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.

Culture.

2

An unlearned, biologically deterined behavior pattern common to all members of a species that predictably occurs whenever certain environmental conditions exist.

Instinct.

3

An unlearned, biologically determined involuntary response to some stimuli.

Reflex.

4

Unlearned, biologically determined impulses common to all members of a species that satsify needs such as those for sleep, food, water, or sexual gratification. 

Drives.

5

_________ consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society tht influence people's behavior.

Nonmaterial culture.

6

_________ consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share. 

Material culture.

7

The mental acceptance or conviction that certain things are true or real.

Beliefs.

8

Customs and practices that occur across all societies.

Cultural Universals.

9

Anything that meaningfully represents something else.

Symbol.

10

A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another.

Language.

11

According to the ________, language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

12

Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.

Values.

13

Values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive.

Value contradictions.

14

Refers to the value and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold.

Ideal culture.

15

Refers to the values and standards of the behavior that people actually follow.

Real culture.

16

Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.

Norms.

17

Norms that are written down and and involve specific punishments for violators.

Formal norms.

18

Rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.

Sanctions.

19

_____ sanctions include praise, honors, or medals for conformity to specific norms.

Positive.

20

_______ norms—unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity.

Informal.

21

Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.

Folkways.

22

Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.

Mores.

23

Mores so strong that thier violations is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable.

Taboos. 

24

_____ are formal standardized norms that have been enacted by the legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. 

Laws.

25

______ deal with disputes among persons or groups.

Civil law.

26

____ deals with public safety and well-being.

Criminal Law

27

Refers to the knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into usable forms and the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed.

Technology.

28

 A gap between the technical development of a society and it's moral and legal institutions.

Cultural lag.

29

Refers to the wide range of cultural differences found between and within nations.

Cultural diversity.

30

A category of people who share distinquishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture.

Subculture.