Test #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (27)
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1

Vague

when a word has a meaning that is fuzzy and inexact.

2

Overgenerality

when a words information they provide is too broad and unspecific

3

Ambigous

when a word has two or more distinct meanings and the context does not make clear which meaning is intended.

4

Syntactical Ambiguities

When the ambiguities result from grammar or word order

5

Semantic Ambiguities

When the ambiguity result from uncertainty about the meaining of an invidual word or phrase

6

Verbal Dispute

when people appear to disagree on an issue but in actuality have simply not resolved the ambuiguity of a key term.

7

Factual Dispute

When opponents disagreee not over the meanings of words but over the relevant facts

8

Stipulative Definition

when a completely new word is creaded or an old word is used in an entirely new way

9

Persuasive Definition

when an arguer defines a term in an effort to persuade a reader or listerner to agree with the arguer's point of view regarding the thing being defined.

10

Lexical Definition

when it states the conventional, dictionary meaning of a word

11

Precising Definitions

is intended to make a vague word more precise to that the word's meaning is not left tot ehinterpretation of the reader or listener.

12

Ostensive Definitions

when one just points out the thing they are defining

13

Enumerative Definition

when you provide specific examples of what the word refers to

14

Definition by Subclass

assigns a meaning to a word by listing subclasses of the general class to which the word refers to.

15

Etymological Definition

When the meaning of a word changes over a period of time (like the word gay before it meant happy now it means someone whom is homosexual)

16

Synonymous Definition

assigns a meaning to a word by offering a synonym, another word that has the same meaning as the word being defined.

17

Definition by Genus and Difference

assigns a meaning to a word by identifying a general class (genus) to which things named by a word belong and then specifying a differentiating quality (difference) that distinguishes those things from all other things in the class. (Exp: Buck means male deer)

18

Don’t make definition TOO broad or TOO narrow

a good definition applies to all and only the things being defined

19

Convey the essential meaning of the word being defined

a good definition should do more than just pick out some uniquely identifying properties of the thing being defined

20

Provide a context for ambigious words

should indicate the context in which an ambigious word is being used

21

Avoid slanted definitions

Avoid biased or emotionally charged definitions that improperly play on the emotions or attitudes of an audience

22

Avoid Figurative Definitions

a good definition should express clearly the conventional meaning of a word, not be couched in figurative or metaphorical language

23

Avoid Needlessly Obscure Definitions

a good definition should clarify the meaning of a word for someone who may be unfamiliar with the term (CANNOT include big words that readers won't understand)

24

Avoid circular Definitions

a good definition is circular if a person would need to know what the defined word means in order to uncderstand the word or words used to define it.

25

Denotation

literal meaning of a word

26

Connotation

images and feelings that are associated with the word.

27

Euphenisms

are mild or evasive words that take the palce of harsh, blunt, or taboo words.