Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (27)
when a word has a meaning that is fuzzy and inexact.
when a words information they provide is too broad and unspecific
when a word has two or more distinct meanings and the context does not make clear which meaning is intended.
When the ambiguities result from grammar or word order
When the ambiguity result from uncertainty about the meaining of an invidual word or phrase
when people appear to disagree on an issue but in actuality have simply not resolved the ambuiguity of a key term.
When opponents disagreee not over the meanings of words but over the relevant facts
when a completely new word is creaded or an old word is used in an entirely new way
when an arguer defines a term in an effort to persuade a reader or listerner to agree with the arguer's point of view regarding the thing being defined.
when it states the conventional, dictionary meaning of a word
is intended to make a vague word more precise to that the word's meaning is not left tot ehinterpretation of the reader or listener.
when one just points out the thing they are defining
when you provide specific examples of what the word refers to
Definition by Subclass
assigns a meaning to a word by listing subclasses of the general class to which the word refers to.
When the meaning of a word changes over a period of time (like the word gay before it meant happy now it means someone whom is homosexual)
assigns a meaning to a word by offering a synonym, another word that has the same meaning as the word being defined.
Definition by Genus and Difference
assigns a meaning to a word by identifying a general class (genus) to which things named by a word belong and then specifying a differentiating quality (difference) that distinguishes those things from all other things in the class. (Exp: Buck means male deer)
Don’t make definition TOO broad or TOO narrow
a good definition applies to all and only the things being defined
Convey the essential meaning of the word being defined
a good definition should do more than just pick out some uniquely identifying properties of the thing being defined
Provide a context for ambigious words
should indicate the context in which an ambigious word is being used
Avoid slanted definitions
Avoid biased or emotionally charged definitions that improperly play on the emotions or attitudes of an audience
Avoid Figurative Definitions
a good definition should express clearly the conventional meaning of a word, not be couched in figurative or metaphorical language
Avoid Needlessly Obscure Definitions
a good definition should clarify the meaning of a word for someone who may be unfamiliar with the term (CANNOT include big words that readers won't understand)
Avoid circular Definitions
a good definition is circular if a person would need to know what the defined word means in order to uncderstand the word or words used to define it.
literal meaning of a word
images and feelings that are associated with the word.