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What technique appears natural and is largely unquestioned?

Frames act much like signs and symbols in semiotics: Once accepted, they
appear natural and go largely unquestioned

So basically its both frames and symbols


Which country declared that reports of torture of political opponents were fake news?

In March 2017
the state-run media of the People's Republic of China declared that reports of torture
against political opponents were fabrications.


Which countries have been leaders in media-literacy education?

Canada and Australia,
have taken the lead in media-literacy education


In many developing countries, technology is not easily accessible because of what?

Without adequate phone
lines & consistent electric power, it is nearly impossible
to depend on a PC or regular Internet service. They mostly rely instead on satellite transmission of cable
content, when allowed by the governments.


Alarm about the effects of media on children dates as to how far back?

360 BCE, t in ancient Greece, philosophers Socrates and Plato worried about
the influence of literacy on children, Homer's Battles of the Gods( BOOK)

In the 1800s, critics warned that newspapers
caused juvenile crime.

In the 1920s, much of the public became worried about
the depiction of sex, violence, and lawlessness in film.


What do reporters instruct their partners to do and not to do based on the conventions of interviewing in the field & studio?

the journalist instructs the subject
never to look directly into the camera, a privilege reserved for the news anchor or field reporter, who often summarizes or concludes her report in this manner that establishes eye contact with the audience


What is a media oligopoly?

A marketplace in which media
ownership and diversity are
severely limited and the actions of
any single media group affect its
competitors substantially, including
determining the content and
price of media products for both
consumers and advertisers.


What is circulation?

Number of newspaper copies sold
or distributed.


What is the codex?

Manuscript book of individually
bound pages.

Some history: Between the first century BCE and the sixth century CE,
the codex, a manuscript of bound individual pages, began replacing the scroll, establishing
the modern book form


What is a mass-market paperback?

Inexpensive, softcover books small
enough for a back pocket and
sold in bookstores, supermarkets,
drugstores, and other public places.


What were the first paper back form of books?

Dime novels, whose cost
of l0 cents made it accessible even to
the poor.


What is cultural transmission?

The process of passing on culturally
relevant knowledge, skills,
attitudes, and values from person
to person or group to group

In regards to print media, magazines newspapers & books convey what society considers right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable.


Who is Benjamin Day and what did he accomplish?

Publisher of The New York Sun who
originated t he penny press in 1833
by offering his paper on the street s
for a penny.


What is the penny press?

Newspapers that sold for a
penny, making t hem accessible to
everyone. Supported by advertising
rat her than subscriptions, t hey tried
to attract as large an audience as


Why did magazines stop publishing general interest magazines & start specialized magazines after the advent of television?

In the 1940s and 1950s, television quickly drew national advertisers seeking large
audiences. Consequently, general-interest magazines such as LIFE and LOOK saw
their business base dissolve... they created specialized magazines on almost every conceivable
topic, a move that attracted advertisers who wished to target specific audiences.


What is the most important function of modern newspapers?

The most important function of modern newspapers is surveillance informing
the public of important event


What are muckrakers?

Journalists, particularly magazine
journalists, who conduct
investigative reporting on major
corporations and government;
they were dubbed muckrakers in
the early twentieth century for the
"muck" they uncovered.


What is considered one of the first mechanically printed press works?

The gutenburg bible!
printed by Johannes
Gutenberg in Europe in 1455,
considered one of t he first
mechanically printed works.


What is "pass-along readership" and how does it affect circulation?

readership," readers who read the same copy... diminishes circulation

Newspaper readership (number or percentage who read a newspaper) is larger
than circulation


What was the newspaper format that sold @ low price to increase circulation and attract large audiences?

Penny press-

Newspapers that sold for a
penny, making them accessible to
everyone. Supported by advertising
rather than subscriptions, they tried
to attract as large an audience as


What was the golden age of newspapers?

1830 - 1930, radio took over


What form of print media was designed to entertain?

Comic books and picture books, providing young readers with some of their
first adventures in reading, are designed to entertain.


Who controls about 65 percent of ebook market?



What are the 3 functions of print media?

1) Transmit culture - teaches societal rules/ what is right or wrong

2) Diffusion of ideas and knowledge



What is citizen journalism sometimes criticized for?

Failing to meet up to professional standards


Magazines use a high-quality paper stock that gives them the unique distinction over newspapers?

high-quality print is still more readable than text on a similarly sized tablet screen and the

portability and relatively low cost of a magazine do not make consumers feel like
they are making a major investment.

They provide a different impression than newspapers do giving off different social cues: subtle social markers

Third, magazines have typically been published on higher-quality paper stock intended
to be kept considerably longer than dailies.


Although hundreds of new titles are published every year, most magazines survive how long?

magazines are published at regular but less frequent intervals Most typically monthly, although weeklies and quarterlies are also common.


About 75 percent of the top 100 best selling-papers are located where?

About 75 percent of the top one hundred papers are in Asia, including the largest
English-language newspaper, the Times of India (four million).


Vast majority of U.S. newspapers are what kind of newspapers?

The vast majority of U.S. newspapers serve local geographic communities
(usually city-based but with zoned suburb editions), monitoring their government, law enforcement, b usiness, religion, education, arts, and other

SO BASICALLY THEY ARE LOCAL newspapers, not many are national


How long do newspapers survive?

Portable and inexpensive, newspapers consist largely of words, photos, and graphics
printed either daily or weekly on lightweight paper stock.

so daily/weekly, and aren't as durable as magazines