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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (114)
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1

5 Pillars of Pharmacology

Drug, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacotherapeutics and Drug Toxicity

2

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.

3

Pharmacodynamics

Mechanism of Action

4

Pharmacotherapeutics

Therapeutic use of the drug.

5

Drug Sources

Natural, Synthetic, and Semi-Synthetic

6

Natural Drug Sources

Plant, Animal, Fungi and Bacteria

7

Active Compounds in Plants

Alkaloids, Glycosides, Resins, Gums, Tannins, Fixed and Volatile Oils.

8

Alkaloids

Basic nitrogenous substances that are insoluble in water. End in -ine.

9

Glycosides

Sugars that are combined with other organic structures.

10

Resins

Substances formed by the polymerization of volatile oils.

11

Gums

Polysaccharides from trees.

12

Tannins

Non-nitrogenous plant parts that produce an astringent effect.

13

Fixed Oils

Stable oils that will NOT evaporate in air.

14

Volatile Oils

WILL evaporate when exposed to air.

15

Animal Sources of Drugs

Blood, plasma, and hormones.

16

Drugs from Bacteria

Antibiotics

17

Drugs from Fungi

Antibiotics like penicillin.

18

Semisynthetic Drug Sources

Chemically treated natural sources.

19

Synthetic Drug Sources

Highly purified substances.

20

Solid Drugs

Powder, tablet, pill, bolus, pessary and suppository.

21

Liquid Drugs

Mixture, tincture, spirit, suspension, elixir, emulsion, extract, infusion, decoction, injection, and lotion.

22

Semisolid Drugs

Ointment, cream, paste, electuary.

23

Gases / Vapor Drugs

Aerosol, spray and mist.

24

Routes of Administration

Local, Systemic and Parenteral.

25

Local Routes

TOPICAL TREATMENTS: Skin, nasal, ocular, urinary tract, vaginal, rectal, mammary, lingual/sublingual, GI tract lining, otic, epidural, intraspinal, intrasynovial, and intramedullary.

26

Systemic Routes

ENTERAL - per os. (By mouth / feeding tube) PARENTERAL - extra-oral / GI route.

27

Parenteral

Injection & Inhalation

28

Enteral Route Advantages

Generally safe, convenient, feeding tubes for non-compliant patient, and infection at site not a concern.

29

Enteral Route Disadvantages

Slower onset of action, inactivation by enzymes, food/drugs may affect absorption, GI activity/integrity, GI upset, and patient/owner compliance.

30

IV Advantages

Rapid onset, less irritating than injecting into tissue, and larger volumes can be given.