Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (114)
5 Pillars of Pharmacology
Drug, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacotherapeutics and Drug Toxicity
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
Mechanism of Action
Therapeutic use of the drug.
Natural, Synthetic, and Semi-Synthetic
Natural Drug Sources
Plant, Animal, Fungi and Bacteria
Active Compounds in Plants
Alkaloids, Glycosides, Resins, Gums, Tannins, Fixed and Volatile Oils.
Basic nitrogenous substances that are insoluble in water. End in -ine.
Sugars that are combined with other organic structures.
Substances formed by the polymerization of volatile oils.
Polysaccharides from trees.
Non-nitrogenous plant parts that produce an astringent effect.
Stable oils that will NOT evaporate in air.
WILL evaporate when exposed to air.
Animal Sources of Drugs
Blood, plasma, and hormones.
Drugs from Bacteria
Drugs from Fungi
Antibiotics like penicillin.
Semisynthetic Drug Sources
Chemically treated natural sources.
Synthetic Drug Sources
Highly purified substances.
Powder, tablet, pill, bolus, pessary and suppository.
Mixture, tincture, spirit, suspension, elixir, emulsion, extract, infusion, decoction, injection, and lotion.
Ointment, cream, paste, electuary.
Gases / Vapor Drugs
Aerosol, spray and mist.
Routes of Administration
Local, Systemic and Parenteral.
TOPICAL TREATMENTS: Skin, nasal, ocular, urinary tract, vaginal, rectal, mammary, lingual/sublingual, GI tract lining, otic, epidural, intraspinal, intrasynovial, and intramedullary.
ENTERAL - per os. (By mouth / feeding tube) PARENTERAL - extra-oral / GI route.
Injection & Inhalation
Enteral Route Advantages
Generally safe, convenient, feeding tubes for non-compliant patient, and infection at site not a concern.
Enteral Route Disadvantages
Slower onset of action, inactivation by enzymes, food/drugs may affect absorption, GI activity/integrity, GI upset, and patient/owner compliance.