Flashcards in TEST 1 Deck (69)
What is Homogomy?
Marrying someone with similar interests
Kinds of Marriage
Monogomy, Polygomy/Polygyny, Cenogamy
What is Polygomy/Polygyny?
one husband multiple wives (benefits: childcare, less adultery, friends for women, maybe extra income) polyandry/(Tibet)—one wife multiple husbands, usually one woman who marries brothers (so land is not divided)
What is Cenogamy?
group marriage, mostly primitive tribal cultures
Which marriage type is most common in the US?
Monogomy (Modified polygomy)
two or more people related by birth, marriage or adoption, residing in the same unit (US Census Bureau, 2005)
all people who occupy a housing unit, regardless of a relationship.
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Approach
Micro, Meso, Exo, and Macrosystems
Family Development Theory
Families go through different stages and adapt to those changes (analogous to child development);
Conflict occurs, perhaps as a struggle over resources, and this leads to inequalities. This occurs at both familial and societal levels
• Evidence today in male/female relationships (housework, divorce, feminization of property)
Family Systems Theory
Families function like an ecological system (similar to structural functionalism)
• Families have boundaries who is in/out of family, what information passes boundaries etc.
• Native-Americans/African-Americans and extended families—families try to maintain homeostasis.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
How people form/share meanings in communication efforts: determined in part by social roles (wife, mother, daughter, sister
• Meanings can include “myths” (We are “happy” family) to maintain the family
Social Exchange Theory
Based on notions that people tend to maximize their rewards, minimize the costs in the relationships.
• Rewards: security, companionship, love
• Costs: drama, economics, personal time
Looks at how societies, families work, emphasizing gender-based role specialization, which is viewed as necessary to promote family equilibrium
• Focuses too much on nuclear, heterosexual families; also, functions that structures serve are not always clear.
What is “traditional” marriage? (6)
According to Coontz, marriage was traditionally not about love by about:
For Offspring: Land, Labor
Often arranged—even in the United States
Only very recently (post industrialization) has most marriage in the US been about love.
Poverty rates have risen dramatically in the last 10+ years; Poverty threshold for a family of 4 is about $20,000
In the 1950s, what increased for women?
rates of alcoholism, substance abuse (anxiolytics) and entrance into mental hospitals increased for white women who were stay-at-home moms.
• Age of marriage has increased; % marrying decreased
• Birthrates have decreased
• Rates of single parenthood have increased for most ethnic groups
• Cohabitation has increased
• Divorce rates between 40-50%, viewed as normal
o May or may not be recent immigrants (Texas, NM, California)
o Land in those areas taken away, cyclical deportations (depending on economy)
o Strong emphasis on family (including extended), religion, and respect
o Patriarchal—male dominant society
o Recent immigrants often young, uneducated, unskilled
5 Characteristics of Asian American
o Perceived as “model minority”—educated, higher SES
o Collectivism (the goose who honks get shot)
o Childrearing characterized by demands for respect, obedience, little praise
o Traditionally, arranged marriages
Four Characteristics of Middle Easterner
o Strong emphasis on family, children, and religion
o Arranged or assisted marriages
o Historically primarily Christian in US (from Lebanon), but now majority is becoming Muslim
Influenced by generations of slavery followed by segregation and discrimination
3 Strengths of African American Families
• Multigenerational and extended families
• Strong religious ties
• Commitment to family and community
Biggest Issue with African American Families
Issues include single parenthood, lack of available male partners for women (incarceration, low rates of graduation), poverty—though growing middle class
a sociocultural construction—what it means to be male/female in a particular society, during a particular time.
whether male/female biologically speaking
the roles we are expected to perform as a result of being male or female—as part of this can have both attitudes and behaviors.
person has traits, behaviors typically associated with other genders or a blend of stereotypical masculine and feminine traits
Social Learning Theory
Children learn gender roles through socialization process: consequences for behavior, imitation, observations.