Flashcards in terms 4 Deck (24)
Micro-level vs macro-level effects
micro: How media affect individuals
macro: hoe it affects society
transmissional vs ritual perspective
transmissional: What does a specific message want us to do?
ritual: What cultural values do media convey?
hypodermic needle theory
audience is passive
Media affect opinion leaders, who then influence others (opinion followers)
When people confront information that conflicts with what they think or believe, they feel uncomfortable
people prefer to consume media that confirms their worldview
people remember only what fits their worldview
people interpret information in ways that confirm their worldview
Media don’t tell us what to think but what to think about
uses and gratifacations
People use media for their own purposes
Inhibitory vs disinhibitory effects
Dis-inhibitory effects: Encourages audience to act recklessly (dis-inhibits people)
Inhibitory effects:Encourages audience to be more cautious (inhibits them from doing something)
Supports direct effects model, (imitation)
studied children's behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll, a toy that gets up by itself to a standing position when it is knocked down.
Pro-social behavior that benefits another person or society as a whole
Exceptions to 1st Amendment
libel/slander, child pornography, if it affects fair trade
Would the average person, applying the contemporary community standards, viewing the work as a whole, find the work appeals to the prurient interest?
Does the work depict or describe sexual conduct in a patently offensive way?
Does the work taken as a whole lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value?
News used to have to cover multiple sides of an issue and give opposing sides equal time.
Ended during de-regulation of 1980s.
Journalists don’t have to give up their sources.
Many states have shield laws, but currently there is no federal shield law.
practitioners within the company who serve as judges in disputes between the public and the company
Once copyright has expired, material becomes part of the public domain.
ownership of a piece of expression
Does not devalue original
Use in the public interest