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1

In contrast to empirical studies or theoretical articles, literature reviews:

a. define and clarify a problem
b. summarize previous investigators
c. identify relations, contradictions, or inconsistencies in the literature
d. suggest steps for future research
e. do all of the above

e. do all of the above

2

When listing an author of a paper, it is incorrect to:

a. give titles (PhD or OFM)
b. spell out the middle name
c. use informal names (Marty Seligman)
d. do all of the above

d. do all of the above

3

The headings of a manuscript should:

a. reveal the logical organization of the paper to the reader
b. be at the same level for topics of equal importance
c. not be labeled with numbers or letters
d. do all of the above

d. do all of the above

4

Edit the following for the presentation of a series:

"The researchers attempted to determine the relation between the age of the mother at the child's birth and (1) the child's intellectual development, (2) the child's social development, and (3) the mother's personal adjustment."

a. leave as is
b. The researchers attempted to determine the relation between the age of the mother at the child's birth and (a) the child's intellectual development, (b) the child's social development, and (c) the mother's personal adjustment.
c. The researchers attempted to determine the relation between the age of the mother at the child's birth and a) the child's intellectual development, b) the child's social development, and c) the mother's personal adjustment.
d. The researchers attempted to determine the relation between the age of the mother at the child's birth and (A) the child's intellectual development, (B) the child's social development, and (C) the mother's personal adjustment.

b. The researchers attempted to determine the relation between the age of the mother at the child's birth and (a) the child's intellectual development, (b) the child's social development, and (c) the mother's personal adjustment.

5

In casual conversation the word since (italicized) is synonymous with ___________, but in scientific writing it should be used only in its temporal meaning.

a. however
b. because
c. after
d. all of the above

b. because

6

Good economy of expression may be achieved through using:

a. short words
b. short sentences
c. direct, simple declaractive sentences
d. short paragraphs
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

7

The phrase "the experiment demonstrated" is an example of which of the following writing errors?

a. ambiguity
b. redundancy
c. anthropomorphism
d. none of the above

c. anthropomorphism

8

Edit the following for avoiding gender bias:

"It has been suggested that the major factor giving man a performance advantage over other primates on many cognitive tasks is that the tasks have been selected and administered by many men."

a. leave as is
b. It has been suggested that the major factor giving the species man a performance advantage over other primates on many cognitive tasks is that the tasks have been selected and administered by men of the same species.
c. It has been suggested that the major factor giving human beings a performance advantage over other primates on many cognitive tasks is that the tasks have been selected and administered by many other human beings.
d. It has been suggested that the major factor giving human beings (men or women) a performance advantage over other primates on many cognitive tasks is that the tasks have been selected and administered by many other human beings.

c. It has been suggested that the major factor giving human beings a performance advantage over other primates on many cognitive tasks is that the tasks have been selected and administered by many other human beings.

9

Edit the following for avoiding bias in racial and ethnic identity:

"Because of their cultural deprivation, children in Third World countries have fewer opportunities to develop our moral values."

a. leave as is
b. Because of cultural differences, children in Third World countries may develop moral values different from those of children in Western countries.
c. Because of their cultural deprivation, children in Third World countries may not develop higher moral values.
d. Because of their cultural experiences, children in Third World countries have fewer opportunities to develop their moral values.

b. Because of cultural differences, children in Third World countries may develop moral values different from those of children in Western countries.

10

Which of the following sentences contains the preferable use of verb tense and voice?

a. The same results have been shown by Komarraju (2008).
b. Komarraju (2008) shows the same results.
c. Komarraju (2008) showed the same results.
d. Komarraju (2008) had shown the same results.

c. Komarraju (2008) showed the same results.

11

Which of the following sentences is an example of correct agreement between the pronoun and its antecedent?

a. The instructions that were included in the experiment were complex.
b. Neither the highest scorer nor the lowest scorer had any doubt about their competence.
c. The group improved their scores 30%.
d. All of the above are correct.
e. None of the above is correct.

a. The instructions that were included in the experiment were complex.

12

Edit the following for the placement of the modifier only:

"Although the authors reported the data for the mild and extreme patients in the placebo condition, they only reported the data for the extreme patients in the treatment condition."

a. leave as is
b. Although the authors reported the data for the mild and extreme patients in the placebo condition, they reported only the data for the extreme patients in the treatment condition.
c. Although the authors reported the data for the mild and extreme patients in the placebo condition, they reported the data only for the extreme patients in the treatment condition.
d. Although the authors reported the data for the mild and extreme patients in the placebo condition, they reported the data for the extreme patients only in the treatment condition.

c. Although the authors reported the data for the mild and extreme patients in the placebo condition, they reported the data only for the extreme patients in the treatment condition.

13

Edit the following for the use of subordinate conjunctions:

"Since left-handers constitute a minority of the population, there are less likely to be appropriate models for them to watch."

a. leave as is
b. Because left-handers constitute a minority of the population, there are less likely to be appropriate models for them to watch.
c. Although left-handers constitute a minority of the population, there are less likely to be appropriate models for them to watch.
d. While left-handers constitute a minority of the population, there are less likely to be appropriate models for them to watch.

b. Because left-handers constitute a minority of the population, there are less likely to be appropriate models for them to watch.

14

Edit the following for sentence structure:

"Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes not only developmental stages but also the role of the ego."

a. leave as is
b. Erikson's psychosocial theory not only emphasizes developmental stages but also the role of the ego.
c. Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes not only developmental stages but also the role of the ego, as well.
d. Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes not only developmental stages but neither the role of the ego.

a. leave as is

15

One space should follow:

a. semicolons
b. colons in two-part titles
c. periods in the initials of personal names
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d. all of the above

16

Edit the following for punctuation:

"The James-Langue theory of emotion states that our emotional experience is caused by our awareness of our bodily reaction to some stimulus: Schachter and Singer (1962) proposed that a cognitive evaluation mediates between the bodily reaction and the subjective emotion."

a. leave as is
b. The James-Langue theory of emotion states that our emotional experience is caused by our awareness of our bodily reaction to some stimulus. Schachter and Singer (1962) proposed that a cognitive evaluation mediates between the bodily reaction and the subjective emotion.
c. The James-Langue theory of emotion states that our emotional experience is caused by our awareness of our bodily reaction to some stimulus--Schachter and Singer (1962) proposed that a cognitive evaluation mediates between the bodily reaction and the subjective emotion.
d. The James-Langue theory of emotion states that our emotional experience is caused by our awareness of our bodily reaction to some stimulus. And Schachter and Singer (1962) proposed that a cognitive evaluation mediates between the bodily reaction and the subjective emotion.

b. The James-Langue theory of emotion states that our emotional experience is caused by our awareness of our bodily reaction to some stimulus. Schachter and Singer (1962) proposed that a cognitive evaluation mediates between the bodily reaction and the subjective emotion.

17

Which of the following phrases is correctly punctuated?

a. the study, by Wenzel Brown and Beck (2008)
b. the study by Wenzel, Brown, and Beck (2008)
c. the study by Wenzel, Brown, and Beck, (2008)
d. the study by Wenzel Brown and Beck (2008)

b. the study by Wenzel, Brown, and Beck (2008)

18

When is the em dash used?

a. to extend a thought
b. instead of commas to set of restrictive clauses
c. never in APA articles
d. to indicate a sudden interruption in the continuity of a sentence

d. to indicate a sudden interruption in the continuity of a sentence

19

Edit the following for the correct way to report verbatim instructions:

"The participants were instructed to COMPLETE EACH SENTENCE BASED ON YOUR OWN FEELINGS AT THIS MOMENT."

a. leave as is
b. The participants were instructed to complete each sentence based on your own feelings at this moment. (italicized)
c. The participants were instructed to "complete each sentence based on your own feelings at this moment."
d. The participants were instructed to 'complete each sentence based on your own feelings at this moment.'

c. The participants were instructed to "complete each sentence based on your own feelings at this moment."

20

When quoting long sections of material (e.g., verbatim instructions to participants of more than 40 words):

a. set the quote off with double quotation marks
b. indent and use a block format without any quotation marks
c. use a single quotation at the beginning and the end of the quotation
d. use double quotation marks and single-spacing

b. indent and use a block format without any quotation marks

21

Edit the following for the punctuation of a series:

"Theories of work motivation that emphasize the cognitive effects of information include a(i) expectancy theory, b(i) equity theory, and c(i) goal-setting theory."

a. leave as is
b. Theories of work motivation that emphasize the cognitive effects of information include (a) expectancy theory, (b) equity theory, and (c) goal-setting theory.
c. Theories of work motivation that emphasize the cognitive effects of information include a) expectancy theory, b) equity theory, and c) goal-setting theory.
d. Theories of work motivation that emphasize the cognitive effects of information include: a. expectancy theory, b. equity theory, and c. goal-setting theory.

b. Theories of work motivation that emphasize the cognitive effects of information include (a) expectancy theory, (b) equity theory, and (c) goal-setting theory.

22

Which of the following examples should not be hyphenated?

a. role-playing technique
b. super-ordinate variable
c. six-trial problem
d. high-anxiety group
e. all of the above

b. super-ordinate variable

23

In titles of books and articles, initial letters are capitalized in:

a. major words when titles appear in regular text
b. words of four letters or more when titles appear in regular text
c. the second word in a hyphenated compound when titles appear in regular test
d. major words and words of four letters or more when titles appear in references list
e. all of the above except d

e. all of the above except d

24

From the following choices, select the sentence with the correct use of italics:

a. She published her results in the Journal of Interpersonal Relations and social Behavior (i)
b. She published her (i) results in the Journal of Interpersonal Relations and Social Behavior.
c. When the participants (i) read the nonsense syllable gux, they had to soothe their fearful partners
d. Albino rabbits (i), oryctolagus cuniculus, were given unconditional positive regard in both experimental groups

a. She published her results in the Journal of Interpersonal Relations and social Behavior (i)

25

Edit the following for use of abbreviations:

"According to Pavlov (1927), the conditioned stimulus (CS) should be delivered about 1 s before the unconditioned stimulus (US)."

a. leave as is
b. According to Pavlov (1927), the conditioned stimulus (CS) should be delivered about 1 second before the unconditioned stimulus (US).
c. According to Pavlov (1927), the conditioned stimulus (CS) should be delivered about 1 sec. before the unconditioned stimulus (US).
d. According to Pavlov (1927), the CS should be delivered about 1 s before the US.

a. leave as is

26

Identify the error in the following quotation:

The author speculated that "negative exemplars within the self-concept are more confidently known than affirmative exemplars" (Brinthaup, 1983).

a. The quotation is correctly cited
b. The quotation should be in block form
c. Quotation marks are not necessary
d. Quotation marks are not necessary
d. A page number should be cited

d. A page number should be cited

27

Edit the following for the citation of a reference in text:

Among epidemiological samples, Kessler (p. 67) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course.

a. leave as is
b. Among epidemiological samples, Kessler (Kessler, 2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course.
c. Among epidemiological samples, Kessler found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course.
d. Among epidemiological samples, Kessler (2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course.

d. Among epidemiological samples, Kessler (2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course.

28

When a publication has no author,

a. the text citation should list the author as Anonymous
b. the text citation should use the publisher's name
c. no citation is necessary
d. none of the above is true

d. none of the above is true

29

Edit the following for the citation of references in text:

"Several parameters for rehabilitation for rehabilitate psychology research need to be established to improve evidence-based intervention and therapy in this field (Tate, Findley, Dijkers, Nobunaga, & Karunas, 1999; Tate, 2001; Tate, 2006). Personality changed may also occur later in life (Neugarten, 1973; Neugarten & Hagestad, 1976; Neugarten, 1977)."

a. leave as is
b. Several parameters for rehabilitation for rehabilitation psychology research need to be established to improve evidence-based intervention and therapy in this field (Tate 2001, 2006; Tate, Findley, Dijkers, Nobunaga, & Karunas, 1999). Personality changed may also occur later in life (Neugarten, 1973, 1977; Neugarten & Hagestad).
c. Several parameters for rehabilitation for rehabilitation psychology research need to be established to improve evidence-based intervention and therapy in this field (Tate, 2001; Tate, 2006; Tate, Findley, Dijkers, Nobunaga, & Karunas, 1999). Personality changed may also occur later in life (Neugarten, 1973, 1977; & Hagestad, 1976).
d. Several parameters for rehabilitation for rehabilitation psychology research need to be established to improve evidence-based intervention and therapy in this field (Tate, 2001, 2006; & Findley, Dijkers, Nobunaga, & Karunas, 1999). Personality changed may also occur later in life (Neugarten, 1973, Neugarten & Hagestad, 1976; ibid., 1977).

b. Several parameters for rehabilitation for rehabilitation psychology research need to be established to improve evidence-based intervention and therapy in this field (Tate 2001, 2006; Tate, Findley, Dijkers, Nobunaga, & Karunas, 1999). Personality changed may also occur later in life (Neugarten, 1973, 1977; Neugarten & Hagestad).

30

When citing a specific part of a source, be sure to give

a. the authors' names
b. the year of publication
c. a page number, paragraph number, or nearby heading and paragraph number of a quotation is cited
d. all of the above

d. all of the above