teratogens and their effects on fetus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in teratogens and their effects on fetus Deck (21)
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1

ace inhibitors

renal damage

2

alkylating agents

absence of digits

3

aminoglycosides

CN 8 toxicity

4

carbamazepine

neural tube defects; craniofacial defects; fingernail hypoplasia

5

DES

diethylstilbestrol
vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital mullerian anomalies

6

folate antagonists

neural tube defects

7

lithium

atrialized right ventricle (ebstein anomaly)

8

methimazole

aplasia cutis congenita

9

phenytoin

fetal hydantoin syndrome

10

fetal hydantoin syndrome

due to phenytoin medication

microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoplastic nails and distal phalanges, cardiac defects, IUGR, intellectual impairment

11

tetracyclines

discolored teeth (teethracyclines)

12

thalidomide

limb defects (thalimbdomide)
"flipper limbs" = phocomelia, micromelia

13

valproate

inhibits maternal folate absorption --> neural tube defects

14

warfarin

bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, ophthalmic abnormalities
use HEPARIN with pregnancy

15

alcohol

fetal alcohol syndrome
birth defects and intellectual disability

16

cocaine

abnormal fetal growth and fetal addiction

17

smoking/nicotine

low birth weight
preterm labor, placental issues, IUGR, ADHD

18

iodine

lack (congenital goiter) or excess (hypothyroidism/cretinism)

19

maternal diabetes

caudal regression syndrome, congenital heart defects, neural tube defects

20

excess vitamin A

risk of spontaneous abortion and defects (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)

21

xrays

microcephaly, intellectual disability