Flashcards in TEEHEE TICKLE CLEP PICKLE Deck (32)
Which of the following statements about modern U.S. family life is true?
a. Sexual activity is more satisfying to people who are in sustained relationships such as marriage.
b. People over the age of 45 are more likely to cohabit than people under age 45.
c. Teenage pregnancies have increased dramatically over the past thirty years.
d. The percentage of unmarried teenage pregnancies has decreased dramatically over the past thirty years.
e. Sexual activity is not a concern of persons aged 60 and over.
Sexual activity is more satisfying to people who are in sustained relationships such as marriage.
Conflict explanations of family problems such as high rates of divorce and overall family instability focus on v
a. the use of symbols in the interaction between spouses.
b. the relationship between family troubles and changes in social institutions.
c. the way in which definitions concerning family problems are socially constructed.
d. how traditional sex roles are functional for family members.
e. how exploitation of the lower classes by the upper classes contributes to family problems.
how exploitation of the lower classes by the upper classes contributes to family problems.
Conflict theorists examine ways that
powerful persons and groups act to keep relatively powerless persons and groups in subordinate positions.
The political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals is
a. the state.
b. the military.
c. a bureaucracy.
d. the executive branch.
e. the economy.
the state (AKA THE GOVT)
What is the term that sociologists use to describe the situation where charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority?
Routinization of charisma
Which social thinker referred to religion as "the opium of the masses"?
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. Herbert Spencer
e. Max Weber
What is the term that Max Weber used to describe the extent to which persons within a particular layer of stratification have access to important scarce resources?
a. Life chances
b. Cultural opportunity
c. Social opportunity
d. Social prospects
e. Conspicuous consumption
According to functionalists, society is structured so that
the most qualified persons obtain the most important (and prestigious) occupational positions
The conflict approach is based on the views of Karl Marx, who believed that ownership or nonownership of
property determines the class to which a person belongs.
A hierarchy in which persons are placed in occupational positions according to their ability and credentials is
a. an autocracy.
b. a plutocracy.
c. a pyramid.
d. a democracy.
e. a meritocracy.
People who are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation are members of the
a. working class.
c. poverty class.
d. bottom class.
e. blue-collar class.
Sociologist Max Weber did NOT view the concept of social class as a specific social category of "real people," but as a/an
c. ideal type.
d. prestige construct.
How do the views of Max Weber and Karl Marx differ concerning the concept of social class?
Weber added to Marx's insights by developing a multidimensional explanation of the class structure and identifying additional classes.
All of the following are reasons why social inequality may increase in the United States in the twenty-first century, EXCEPT
a. the purchasing power of the dollar has stagnated or declined since the early 1970s.
b. federal tax laws in recent years have benefited corporations and wealthy families at the expense of middle-income and lower-income families.
c. people living in poverty are effectively demanding a larger share of the U.S. budget.
d. structural sources of upward mobility are shrinking while the rate of downward mobility has increased.
e. the gap between the earnings of workers and the income of managers and top executives has widened.
people living in poverty are effectively demanding a larger share of the U.S. budget.
Which characteristic of professionals is demonstrated when they go beyond their self-interest or personal comfort in order to help a patient or client?
Working-class occupations that are relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women are referred to as
a. pink-collar occupations.
b. blue-collar occupations.
c. white-collar occupations.
d. frayed collar occupations.
e. administrative occupations.
The shift from manufacturing to service occupations in the U.S. economy has contributed to
a. higher rates of employment.
b. the loss of higher-paying positions.
c. more job security for workers.
d. increased employment opportunities for central-city residents.
e. fewer contingent workers.
the loss of higher-paying positions
Sociologists define race as a category of people who
a. have distinctly inferior personal characteristics when compared to a dominant majority.
b. have been singled out as inferior or superior on the basis of physical characteristics.
c. have the same color skin, hair texture, and/or eye shape.
d. have distinctive cultural characteristics such as language, customs, and traditions.
e. share identical genetic information, which causes them to have an identical appearance and to behave in the same ways as each other.
have been singled out as inferior or superior on the basis of physical characteristics.
The functionalist perspective assumes that the family is organized in ways
that benefit all members of the family, and society as a whole.
In Gesellschaft societies, ... whats it like
self-interest dominates, and most people are "strangers" who perceive that they have very little in common with most other people.
In Gesellschaft societies, a prevailing core value is that people
a. have a commitment to the entire group.
b. should be dependent on others.
c. feel a sense of togetherness.
d. have a strong sense of belonging.
e. should be able to take care of themselves.
should be able to take care of themselves.
Social solidarity refers to a
group's ability to maintain itself in spite of obstacles.
The specialty area of sociology that studies human population characteristics and changes is
b. social psychology.
c. social movements.
The number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year is the
a. mortality index.
b. total death rate.
c. death quota.
d. refined death rate.
e. crude death rate.
crude death rate
What are light industries
Light industry dominates postindustrial cities, unlike the factory-based manufacturing typical of industrial cities.
What is labeling theory
Labeling theory suggests that being labeled as deviant increases the likelihood of engaging in further deviant acts, known as secondary deviance.
Emergent norm theory suggests that
Emergent norm theory suggests that crowds develop their own definition of the situation and establish norms for behavior that fit the occasion.
Which British sociologist is credited with coining the phrase "survival of the fittest"?
a. Auguste Comte
b. Max Weber
c. Herbert Spencer
d. Harriet Martineau
e. Robert Merton
French sociologist Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry is known as
c. "looking-glass" self.
d. content analysis.