Flashcards in Technical Implementation(Hardware) Deck (40)
What is the function of backing storage devices?
Allow data and programs to be stored permanently outside the CPU
State some factors that may influence system performance of a computer system
Number of cores
Data bus width
Use of cache memory
Number of Internal Registers
Describe ROM memory and what it stores
ROM(Read Only Memory) is permanent, non volatile memory that stores programs such as the bootstrap loader
What is the bootstrap loader?
The first thing loaded into memory when the computer switches on, it loads up the operating system
What are some advantages of having cache memory?
It means faster access to programs etc and it decreases the number of trips to slower main memory
Lily is a maths tutor. She wants a device that will help her keep track of when she is next teaching and would like to be able to keep in contact with her students to inform them of new resources while she is on the go. What device would you recommend and why?
- Enables communication
- Has calendar features
- Highly Portable
Describe a current trend in storage devices
Cloud storage has become more popular, as users want to be able to access their data on the go and from a variety of devices. They also want flexibility in the amount of storage they have
Solid state devices are increasing in popularity due to demand for portable and robust storage devices
Give an example of a
- Magnetic Storage Device
- Optical Storage Device
- Solid State Storage Device
Magnetic - Hard disk drive, Magnetic Tape
Optical - CD,DVD(R,RW,ROM),Bluray
Solid State- USB Flash Drive
Describe the address bus and state it's function
The address bus is a unidirectional bus which tells the memory which location is to be read from/written to
Name the common control lines
NMI(non maskable interrupt)
State the steps in the fetch execute cycle
- Address of Instruction is fetched and placed into MAR(Memory Address Register
- Read line is activated
- Instruction is located at address by address bus
- Instruction is sent along the data bus
- Instruction transferred to Instruction Register, where it is decoded and executed
What is an interface?
An interface is the combination of the software and hardware that allows CPU and peripherals to communicate
State some functions of an interface
Data Conversion (Analogue - Digital, Serial-Parallel etc)
Handling Status Signals
State three things that can be stored in the register
Describe the difference between an emulator and a virtual machine
Emulator - software/hardware that allows one computer system to behave like another
Virtual Machine - emulation of a complete computer system
Compare DRAM and SRAM in terms of size, speed and location
DRAM - slower, main memory, smaller
SRAM - faster,cache, larger
What is buffering?
A buffer is a temporary area of memory allocated to store data while it is being transferred from the CPU to peripherals. The CPU sends data fast to the buffer and from there the buffer passes the data to the peripherals, freeing up the CPU to do other tasks.
What is the definition of memory address?
An address is a unique binary number that identifies a memory location
Is serial or parallel transmission used in the CPU?
Would you be able to compare the Pentium G4620 and the Core i7-7700K by looking at both of their clock speeds?
No, if processors are to be compared using clock speed they must be the same processor type. Also clock speed is a relatively bad way of measuring processor power.
What is the function of the control lines?
Decode and execute instructions
Describe the RESET control line
Clears all internal registers, returning to initial state
Starts loading data from a pre defined place
Describe the INTERRUPT control line
Saves all the contents of the registers into stack and deals with the device that made the interrupt before coming back and loading the stack back into registers
State some uses of virtual machines
Ideal for testing software on different systems
Allows researchers to do security research
List the computer memory types in order of speed starting with the fastest
Define a peripheral
A peripheral is a hardware device which can be attached to the computer
Under what circumstances is spooling preferable to buffering?
- When large amounts of data are being sent
- When a peripheral is shared over a network
What is a limitation of spooling?
It is limited by the capacity of the hard drive
What are the three types of backing storage devices?