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1

Role of Germany

- foundation of first laboratory for experimental psychology
-

2

German universities

-refereed in 19th century
-> more dynamic and advance new sciences
-2 goals:
Wissenschaft
Bildung

3

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

-German
-studied with Von Helmholtz (measurement of reaction times)
-father of experimental psychology
-sometimes considered as founder of anthropology (study of cultures and societies)
-his writings: several contradictions, hard to read
-more structuralism

4

Methods used by Wundt (3)

-experimental methods
-introspection
-historical method

5

Experimental methods

1) psychological methods:
-connection between physical stimuli and their conscious states

2) measurement of the duration of simple mental processes

3) accuracy of reproduction in memory tasks

-> Wundt was familiar with Fechners work on psychophysics: he did measurement of JND

6

Introspection

-already proposed by Wundt
-looking inside + reporting
-method had already been criticized by Kant & Comte

Wund made distinction between:
1) internal perception (no real scientific method)
2) experimental self-observation, practiced in highly controlled circumstances (valid scientific method)

7

Historical method

-studying human mind by investigating the products of human cultures
-well suited to investigate ‘higher’ functions of the mind ( as social aspects of human thought and behavior)

8

America: William James (1842-1910)

-taught psychology at Harvard university (1875)
-wrote a book that had accessible and clear account of what was known about psychology at end of 19th century
-functionalism!
-defended introspection and didn’t like experimental methods

9

Impact of evolutionary theory on James

-functionalism -> inspired by evolutionary theory
- James saw continuity between animal and Human behavior
-> receptive to comparative psychology

10

America: Titchener (1867- 1927)

-structuralism
-student of Wundt
-inspired by empiricism and associationism
-introspection: main research method , but participants had to be trained

11

Titchener wasn’t influential because:

1) Introspection did not intuitively give rise to the experience of elementary sensations -> Würzburg school

2) structuralism did not address issues most American psychologists saw as important

3) countermovement: Gestalt psychology

12

France: Comte (1798-1857)

-positivism
-science should become a religion
-psychology = no real science because:
1) introspection is flawed
2) ?

13

Comte - civilization goes through 3 stages

1) Theocratic stage: gods and spirits dominate culture

2) Metaphysical stage: philosophical dominates -> psychology

3) Positivistic stage: natural sciences dominates

14

France: Ribot( 1839-1916)

-questioned Comte’s view
-showed colleagues how far behind France was, relative to other countries
-translated books
-tried to convince others that they could be positivists without accepting all of Comte’s claims

15

Charcot (1825-1893)

-one of first neurologists
-inspired my Mesmer
-interested in hysteria
-found out that hysteria resembles behavior that could be elicited under hypnosis

16

France: Binet and Simons

-primary education became compulsory
-> development of intelligence test
-created scale of competence

17

Psychology in the UK

-for 6 centuries: Oxford and Cambridge the only universities in England
-conservative universities
-dominated by church
-heavily oriented towards the classics
-unreceptive to natural sciences

18

Attempts to establish psychology at Cambridge

1) James McKeen Cattel (1860-1944)
-became lecturer
-opened first laboratory of physics
-started intelligence measurements with gallons recommendations

2) Rivers (1864-1922)
-lecturer in physiology department and tried to open laboratory -> happened in 1901

3) Myers (1872-1946)
-took over the laboratory in 1912

19

Attempts to establish psychology at Oxford

William Mc Dougall (1971-1938)
?

20

Developments in London

-University College London (UCL) founded in 1826 - alternative to Cambridge and oxford
-interest in natural sciences, open for empirical study of human mind

21

Key developments important for Psychology in London (2)

1) establishment of chair of logic and philosophy of human mind
-> James Sully

2) presence of Galton

22

James Sully

-Grote chair
-wrote books on perception and memory
-effort to established first laboratory of Psychology in UK (1898)
-Founded British society of psychology

23

Francis Galton

-established leading journal for development of statistical methods together with
-Pearson (maths)
-> developed correlation coefficient to measure relation between intelligence test and academic skills (no relation was found)

-and Weldon (zoology)

24

Scotland

-

25

Five schools of Psychology

-beginning are often depicted by making distinction between
1) Structuralism
2) functionalism
3) Gestalt psychology
4) Behaviorism
5) Psychoanalysis

26

History of Psychology simplified in 3 terms

1) theses
2) antitheses
3) syntheses

27

Theses

-psychology as taught at universities
-began as study of mind based on introspection ( structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt)

28

Antitheses

-in reaction to unreliability of introspection
-behaviorism redefined psychology as study of behavior based on objective method of experimentation

29

Syntheses

-reaction to limited research agenda and theoretical failure of behaviorism
-‘cognitive revolution’ restored mind as a proper subject of psychology
-benefit of rigorous experimental methods developed within behaviorism

30

Governmentalization

-second part of 19th century
-private initiatives of citizens were supported by state (education, social legislation, eugenic laws)
-social management became matter of national politics (education, health care)
-laid foundation for welfare state (Sozialstaat)