TASK 5 - ART/SCIENCE + HISTORY OF SCIENCE Flashcards Preview

CRITICAL THINKING > TASK 5 - ART/SCIENCE + HISTORY OF SCIENCE > Flashcards

Flashcards in TASK 5 - ART/SCIENCE + HISTORY OF SCIENCE Deck (10)
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1

art

- artists play with perception, represent mental processes, point our emotions and cognitions out to us in a playful way

2

art + science

- separation prevents real world from being an object of fantasy --> favour lack of culture

3

ancient history of science

1. Plato: knowledge acquisition was associated with deductive reasoning; observation not needed
2. Aristotle: made distinction between inductive + deductive --> practiced deduction
3. Bacon: inductive reasoning based on observation + experimentation became core of scientific thinking for empiricists
--> observation over conviction
- elements were actively manipulated to find the most likely interpretation of phenomenon

4

logical positivism

= identified verification as the core principle of the scientific method
- verificationism = a statement is scientific only if it can be verified as true/false through value free observation
- observation (value-free) --> induction --> verification (based on correspondence theory of truth)
x knowledge can't be produced from facts alone
x prove inductive conclusion, is logically impossible

5

Popper
- book

- falsificationism = statements that cannot be falsified make no clear predictions thus aren’t scientific
- degrees of falsifiability = the more falsifiable (dependent on level of detail + scope) a theory the better the theory is
- every “good” scientific theory is a prohibition = it forbids certain things to happen, the more the better
- science can be falsified + there is a willingness to do so

6

Popper viewpoint

- falsifiable, testable, no confirmation
- you need to replace a falsified theory immediately as soon as it has been contradicted

7

Popper
- hypothetico-deductive method

= science better considered as the formulation of theories (on the basis of inductive reasoning + educated guessing) that scientists subsequently try to falsify by deriving hypotheses which are put to the falsification test
--> scientific progress involves inductive + deductive reasoning

8

Kuhn
- book

- theory of scientific progress = all observations and theoretical concepts were dependent on the language of the adopted theory/conjecture
- pre-science --> normal science --> crisis --> revolution --> new normal science --> new crisis…

9

Kuhn
- viewpoint

- paradigm shift
- inductive reasoning
- never ending cycle
- a discipline needs a general theory to become scientific --> forms a paradigm against which observations are made
- all knowledge is relative and time-dependent

10

Lakatos
- viewpoint

- heuristics (positive + negative)
- protective belt (only drop theory when core is hit, not when only belt/periphery)
- falsification is too strict