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Flashcards in TASK 4 - ETHICS + RHETORIC Deck (25)
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1

ethics

= moral philosophy = systematising, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong behaviour
- three general subject areas:
1. metaethics
2. normative ethics
3. applied ethics
- lines are often blurry

2

1. metaehtics

= where our ethical principles come from and what they mean
- psychological basis of our moral judgments --> what motivates us to be moral

3

1. metaethics
- egoism vs. altruism

1. psychological egoism = self-oriented interests ultimately motivate all human actions
2. psychological hedonism = pleasure is the specific driving force behind all of our actions
3. psychological altruism = at least some of our actions are motivated by instinctive benevolence

4

1. metaehtics
- emotion vs. reason

1. Hume: emotivist and prescriptivist theories = we need distinctly emotional reaction in order to make a moral pronouncement, reason is giving the relevant data
- emotive element + prescriptive element
2. Kant: true moral action is motivated only by reason when it is free from emotions and desires
3. Baier: rationalist approach = all of our moral choices are/can be backed by some reason or justification --> proper moral decision making involves giving the best reasons in support of one course of action

5

2. normative ethics

= establish single/set of foundational principles against which we judge all actions
- single principle: Golden Rule = we should do others what we would want others to do to us
- only one ultimate criterion of moral conduct (single or set)

6

2. normative ethics
- virtue theories

= we should develop good habits of character (= virtues) + avoid acquiring bad character traits (= vices)
- emphasis on moral education
- virtues are grounded and emerge from within social traditions

7

2. normative ethics
- consequentialist theories

= correct moral conduct is determined solely by a cost-benefit analysis of an action’s consequences
1. tally good and bad consequences of an action
2. determine whether the total good consequences outweigh the total bad consequences
--> morally right = consequences of action more favourable than unfavourable
1) ethical egoism = consequences are more favourable than unfavourable to AGENT
2) ethical altruism = consequences are more favourable than unfavourable to EVERYONE EXCEPT THE AGENT
3) utilitarianism = consequences are more favourable than unfavourable to EVERYONE
- act-utilitarianism = determine case by case for each action whether it is morally right/wrong
- hedonistic utilitarianism = pleasure vs. pain caused by actions

8

2. normative ethics
- duty theories

= base morality on specific, foundational principles of obligation; there are clear obligation
1) Pufendorf: duties to God, duties to oneself, duties to others
2) Locke: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
3) Kant: categorical imperative = simply mandates action, irrespective of one’s personal desires
--> treat people as an end, and never as a means to an end (dignity)

9

3. applied ethics

= examining and resolving specific controversial issues by using tools of metaethics and normative ethics

10

rhetoric

= figures of speech = words and constructions you can employ to make your argument more attractive
- place emphasis
- create an impression
- build tension
- introduce surprise/ bewilderment
- enhance persuasive power

11

repetitio

= word/phrase is repeated almost verbatim a number of times
--> hammering it home to the audience

12

anaphora

= repetitio at the start of a number of sentences

13

the rule of three

= three is a quantity that sticks

14

chiasmus

= two related sentences/phrases are each other’s syntactical mirror image

15

rhetorical question

= definite statement in the shape of a question; not meant to be answered

16

metaphor

= call something by another name directly
--> comparing that which you really mean with that which you call it

17

tautology

= concept is repeated using different word that has (roughly) the same meaning
--> both words belong to same lexical category

18

pleonasm

= obvious quality of an object/concept is repeated
--> words belong to two different lexical categories

19

hyperbole

= more or less appropriate exaggeration
--> often comical effect

20

enumeration

= number of names, facts, arguments follow each other up
--> give each element an empathetic and convincing ring

21

paradox

= apparent contradiction
--> upon closer reading, phrase turns out to be correct after all

22

understatement

= intentional trivialisation

23

euphemism

= term which sounds too harsh/unkind is replaced with another, less direct term
--> fear of calling something by its real name

24

oxymoron

= combination of two contradictory terms

25

litotes

= special kind of understatement; something is strongly emphasised by denying the opposite