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Scientific revolution

-started around 1543
-series of intellectual developments that enhanced the status of science in society

3 critical insights:
1) earth not Centre of universe
2) many things can be understood as machines
3) movements on earth can be described using laws of physics


Aristoteles view

-finite universe
-earth at its Centre
-deductive reasoning


Destroyers of the old world view




Newtonian worldview

-early 1600s
- new evidence that earth moved about the sun



-sun as Centre of universe
-1514, published only shortly before his death 1543
-was afraid of Roman Catholic Church
-first person to take this model seriously was Johannes Kepler


Galileo Galilei - his observations (4)

1) more starts than visible
2) surface of moon wasn’t smooth
3) Jupiter had four moons
4) size of mars and Venus changed and Venus had phases just like moon



-body mind problem
-mechanistic view
-reflex action theory
-deductive reasoning
-skeptical method
-cogito ergo sum


Francis bacon and the Novum organum (1620)

-interaction between perception and reasoning is required
-inductive reasoning
-perception is limited due to:
Peoples bias
People do not observe everything correctly

-> systematic observations
->adoption of bacons research method was reason why science became so successful


Experimenta Lucifera -bacon

-use clarifying experiments to determine true causes
-light-bringing experiments


Bacon - experimenta frutifera

-fruit bearing experiments
-go beyond experiments mechanics set up to solve practical problems


Inductive reasoning

-making generalizations based upon behavior observed in specific cases
-conclusions may be incorrect even if the argument is strong and the premises are true
-needed in science to turn observed phenomena into scientific laws
-> Bacon


Factors that contributed scientific revolution ( 6)

-demographic changes
-absence of pressure from religion or authority
-new inventions
-existence of universities and patronage
-Massive enrichment form Greek to arab civilizations
-natural philosophy became detached from the big philosophical questions


Deductive reasoning

-starts with a general statement
-uses given information, premises or accepted general rules to reach a proven conclusion
-conclusions can be valid if premises are known to be true
-reasoning of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Catholic Church


Experimental history

-introduced by bacon
-clarifying experiments to examine truth of axioms to get higher axioms (Grundsatz)
-extracting the truth from nature by manipulation and examination of the consequences
-natural philosophers had to tale active role to find most likely interpretation


Factors helped fledgling science grow (3)

-absence of disasters in 15-19th centuries
-a benevolent (gültig) religion
-establishment of learned societies


Impact of science on daily life

-19th century: scientific revolution

-> increased production of goods
-> people live longer
-> people became more literate
-> they knew more about the world


4 factors of modern science

1) acknowledge of no authorities except the authority of Nature itself
2) its experimental: built upon direct observation AND artificial experiments
3) favoring of mechanistic world picture
4) description/explanation of natural things/events in mathematical terms


Johannes Kepler (1571)

-studied theology
-excellent mathematical understanding -> taught him work of Nicolaus Copernicus
-believed in his heliocentric hypothesis
-lecturer in astronomy and mathematics in Austria (1594)
-‘mystery of the cosmos’
-3 laws of planetary motion


Johannes Kepler, relation to Galileo

-lived at same time
-both astronomers
-had problems with church
-Galileo believed in circular orbits, contrary to Keplers theory of ellipses
-Galileo might have seen Kepler as a rival, not a partner -> he refused to send him his new designed telescope


Galileo and Descartes

-immense gap between reality and appearance
-reality hides behind the appearances


how can we know this hidden word?

Galileo and Descartes: by abstract mathematical thinking = mathematical (classical) sciences

Bacon: by forcing nature to reveal her secrets by torturing her and putting her on the rack of the experiment = experimental (or Baconian) science

=> rejecting Aristotle


Galileo - objective reality

-size, shape, motion, rest, number


Galileo - subjective appearances

-tactile properties


Epistemological problem

Why should we believe modern science and reject Aristotle?


skeptical method

-philosophical questioning of everything to find basic truths (=undeniable facts)


Descartes - matter

-extension in space
-infinitely divisible
-laws of nature


Descartes - mind

-not extended in space
-not divisible (unity)
-reason and language
-not determined (free will)


Descartes ontological problem

What is the mind?
Ontology= about ‘stuff’ -> so what stuff is mind, what stuff is matter
- where does it come from?
-what is the relationship between mind and matter?

-mind is always thinking ( conscious)


3 levels of consciousness

1) functional: state of info processing that allows subsequent (folgend) behavior/processing

2) phenomenal: what the states feels like, ‘what it is like to be’ in that stat

3) physical: ‘stuff’ the state is made of, e.g. neural firing, electrical impulses



It’s all just the same ontological stuff

Phenomenal = physical = functional