TASK 2 - ARGUMENT MAPPING + COMPLEX ARGUMENTS Flashcards Preview

CRITICAL THINKING > TASK 2 - ARGUMENT MAPPING + COMPLEX ARGUMENTS > Flashcards

Flashcards in TASK 2 - ARGUMENT MAPPING + COMPLEX ARGUMENTS Deck (65)
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1

argument mapping
- functions

- represent structure of an argument graphically
- not sequential --> tree
- less demanding on the WM
- facilitate exchange of arguments in group discussions

2

1. micro level

- textual analysis = studying texts that offer reasons/premises (+ or -) for conclusions
- look for indicators that show relationships between statements

3

2. macro level

- represent macro level in argument map

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conclusion

= main claim/contention = idea that somebody claims is true; wanted to be supported

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arguments/premises pro

= statements/reasons claimed to provide support for the conclusion

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arguments/premises contra

= objections = statements/reasons or evidence against the claim

7

single arguments

= argument consists of a contention which is justified using a single premise

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composite argument

= multiple argument = argument with more than one reason

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convergent argument

= argument where 2 premises support conclusion separately/independently

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chain of reasoning

= contention can be a praise for a conclusion at a higher level

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co-premises

= when several premises together form a source of evidence for a conclusion
- contention that bridges the logical gap between a premise and conclusion

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dependent premises

= syllogisms = does not support the contention independently from the other premise
- another term for co-premises

13

counterarguments

= two arguments that counter each other

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dispute

= claim to which several reasons and objections are linked

15

if…then constructions

- must always be represented as single claims in argument
- always form dependent co-premise
- provide argument with a warrant (= justification why a particular premise provides support for a particular claim)

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fundamental rules
1) golden rule

= each single argument really consists of two or more co-premises
- assumes that you need least 1 co-premise (minor premise) to bridge the gap between the major premise and the conclusion

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minor premise

= points at an implicit assumption needed to justify the conclusion

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fundamental rules
2) rabbit rule

= each significant term that is part of the conclusion should also be part of one of the premises
- rabbit cannot simply be pulled out of the magician's hat; it can only be produced if it has been put there beforehand
- ensures that there is a connection between the premise and the contention

19

fundamental rules
3) holding hands

= if a term forms part of one of the premises but not of the contention, it should also form part of the other premise
- ensures that a co-premise has a connection with another co-premise

20

argument decision

= process of deciding whether a passage contains an argument --> look for
1. indicator words
2. inferential relationship between the statements
3. typical kinds of non-arguments

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1. indicator words
- conclusion

= so, therefore, hence, accordingly, thus, it follows that, demonstrates that, for this reason

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1. indicator words
- premises

= because, since, for, as, firstly…, follows from, for the reason that

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2. inferential relationship
- factual claim

= premises must claim to present evidence or reasons
- often falls outside domain of logic

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2. inferential relationship
- inferential claim

= there must be a claim that the evidence or reasons support or imply something = claim that the passage expresses a certain kind of reasoning process
- objective feature of an argument grounded in its language or structure
- not always easy to detect occurrence of an inferential relationship between statements
--> mentally insert ‘therefore’

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explicit inferential claim

= asserted by premise of conclusion indicator words

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implicit inferential claim

= no indicator words

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3. non-arguments
- simple non-inferential passages

= unproblematic passages that lack a claim that anything is being proved; no reason/premise to support the conclusion

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simple non-inferential passages
- warning

= form of expression that is intended to put someone on guard against a dangerous situation

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simple non-inferential passages
- piece of advice

= form of expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision

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simple non-inferential passages
- statement of belief/opinion

= form of expression about what someone happens to believe or think about something