TASK 1 - COMMON SENSE + CONSPIRACIES Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TASK 1 - COMMON SENSE + CONSPIRACIES Deck (13)
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1

classical logic

= aimed at understanding how we achieve knowledge + attempt to express this understanding
- thinking in concepts
- Aristotle = founder

2

concept

= representation of something in our mind; knowledge categories
- we connect a label to a concept that reminds us how we can direct our attention to a particular feature of concept
- concept applies to many cases

3

label

≈ word, image
- labels may become detached from a representation (just a cue, without actual concept)
- can become automated solutions: one can manipulate labels without needing to care about specific contents

4

concept
- generalisation vs. abstractness

1) generalisation: applicability to multitude of individual cases
--> useful, based on abstractness
2) abstractness: we only understand things in a particular way
--> limitation

5

history
- xenophiles + popper

- we have no certain knowledge
- we can acquire uncertain knowledge
- this knowledge approaches the truth

6

today
- attitudes in a non-critical society

- magical attitude towards language
- protective attitude towards current category system
- positive attitude towards past
- negative attitude towards present + future

7

conspiracy theories
- structure

1) who
2) is doing what
3) with what
4) to whom
5) for what purpose

8

conspiracy theories
- definition

- powerful people + organisations --> group of actors
- secretly
- mostly at expense of common good
- insufficient evidence
- resist falsification --> not scientific

9

conspiracy theories
- causes

- adaptive conspiracism
- evolutionary advantage --> survival
- 'us' vs. 'them'
- conspiracy cascades: role of info, reputation, availability, emotions
- crippled epistemologies
- media --> algorithms
- ramsey theory

10

ramsey theory

= given enough elements in a set/structure some particular interesting pattern among them is guaranteed to emerge

11

conspiracy theories
- predispositions

- conspiracy mindset
- low self-esteem, low level of education, low income
- schizotypal personality, paranoid
- anxious
- negative attitudes towards authority

12

conspiracy theories
- negative effects

- violence
- reduces sense of autonomy
- people take less action --> feel powerless
- heightens paranoia

13

conspiracy theories
- positive effects

- questions dominance
- opens discussions
- reveals real conspiracies
- gives sense of community